The aim of this paper is to identify the dimensions of the potential of ethnic violence and related social factors in West Azerbaijan province. In the present study, the theories of menza and Bruks, Wimmer, Fredrik Barth, and Akulaef have been used. This descriptive study was a descriptive survey that was carried out by cluster sampling and a researcher-made questionnaire on 384 citizens of West Azarbaijan province In order to test the research hypotheses, Pearson correlation coefficient, Anova, multiple regression analysis were used. Reliability of the questionnaire based on Cronbach's alpha (ethnic violence 0. 86, , ethnic cleavage 0. 81, ethnic intercultural communication weakness 0. 89, collective memory 0. 82, ethnic voting pattern 0. 80, representation Violence in the media (0. 76) and construct validity and factor analysis technique were used for validity. Analysis of the data of this survey showed that there is a direct and significant relationship between the weakness of ethnic intercultural communication, ethnic cleavage, collective memory, ethnic voting pattern and representation of violence in the media with the potential of ethnic violence. The fact that 43% of the potential variance in ethnic violence is realistically adjusted is explained and predicted by independent variables. The results of the analysis show that ethnic violence has two dimensions of social and political potential. Increasing ethnic cleavage, weakness of ethnic intercultural communication, ethnic voting, collective memory and representing violence in the media and social networks increase the potential for ethnic violence in West Azerbaijan Province.