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مبانی نظری هنرهای تجسمی | سال:1399 | دوره:- | شماره:10

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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID1
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    1399
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    10
  • Start Page: 

    43
  • End Page: 

    55
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    95
  • Downloads: 

    58
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

مطالعه در طراحی پرندگان ترسیم شده و واکاوی در ترکیب بندی نقوش سفالینه های سه استان شمالی ایران و توجه به علایق و باورهای مشترک و هم جواری استان ها، سبب تنوع نگرش ها و وجوه اشتراک و افتراق همراه با بُعد زیبایی شناسی شده است؛ تا جنبه های پنهان عناصر دیداری را آشکار کند. از این رو، مطالعه 9 نمونه سفالینه با هدف تبیین و ارزیابی انواع شیوه های طراحی و واکاوی در تنوع ترکیب بندی نقوش پرندگان، این سوال را مطرح نموده که، نحوه نگرش در طراحی و ترکیب بندی نقوش پرندگان (قرن4 تا 7 ه. ق. )در سفالینه های تبرستان، جرجان و دیلمان چگونه است؟ روش تحقیق، توصیفی-تحلیلی است و گردآوری اطلاعات، اسنادی و میدانی می باشد. روش تجزیه و تحلیل با دیدگاهی زیبایی شناختی در روش طراحی و تمرکز در عناصر بصری است. نتایج تحقیق نشان داده است که، نقوش پرندگان با سه نگرش واقع گرایانه، فراواقع گرایانه و انتزاع گرا طراحی شده اند. طراحی واقع گرایانه به دلیل اقتباس مستقیم از طبیعت، عاری از خلاقیت و ارزش بصری بوده و طراحی فراواقع گرایانه علاوه بر ایده خلاق، مبتنی بر اغراق در اجزا و تخیل است و در نگرش انتزاع گرا، توجه به شیوه بنیادی و مبتنی بر جوهره درونی می باشد. ترکیب بندی سفالینه های تبرستان همواره از نوع متقارن، نامتقارن، منتشر و دایره ای است؛ اما سفالینه های جرجان و دیلمان به ترتیب از نوع منتشر و متقارن می باشند.

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Writer: 

RAVANJOO AHAD

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    10
  • Start Page: 

    112
  • End Page: 

    123
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    212
  • Downloads: 

    202
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Fotovat-namehs are slangy inscriptions that chivalrous people from different classes of Bazaar wrote to use in favor of their professions. These writings value a certain occupation, showing the holy side of it, praising the good deeds and focusing on teaching the traditional culture, and spreading the acknowledgment. In the case of Fotovat-nameh and Adab-ol-mashgh, masters tried to be trustworthy to the profession so they interviewed the pupils before teaching them. They teach the basics and the relation between master and the pupil to the beginners. It is a source for aesthetics, foundation, and details of calligraphy. Writing these inscriptions started at Timurids and ended in Safavid historical era, have had a huge impact on calligraphers' knowledge about their profession. The most important part of it is Baba-shah-e-isfahani's adab-ol-mashgh that has all the components that "literature" should have had. Chivalry can be researched by exploring through the Fotovat-nameh and knowing the generosity and culture. These kinds of scripts are called “ literature” . Adab-ol-mashgh is just like Fotovat-nameh, it sets the connection between the guild on the inside and the costumers on the outside and surely the right manners and behaviors between them. In this article, we consider Adab-ol-mashgh, as the Fotovat-nameh of the calligraphy, since it contains the condition of the guild, the relation between master and the pupil, the master’ s position, the guild’ s dignity, principles, and the span of the profession, the same thing that Fotovat-namehs did with chivalrous cultures. This article will show the complete accordance between Adab-ol-mashgh and Fotovat-nameh and shows the innocent side of calligraphy while being in the business world and the bazaar as a tool. The explanation of chivalrous people from Ghaboos-ebn-voshmgir shows the common culture back in the days; when chivalry was based on their behavior in every class of the community and they followed an instance to always be pure. Ayaran were the people who spent their whole lives developing and promoting Fotovat-nameh, even if they had jobs it would’ ve been chivalry related. From what’ s recalled about the Ayari culture in fairytales and legends about their bravery (like Ya’ qub-layth) it’ s like they fought just to spread the word and chivalry was the main goal of their lives. Here we’ re going to look at Henry Corbin’ s writings (1984) that shows the godly side of chivalry. He did an analytical introduction about chivalry, he explained the “ chivalry movements” to be “ mystical conducts” and named “ chivalry” the “ mystical knights” that do major movements and they have a strong relation with Islam’ s Shi’ a religion, he found it similar to Europe's renaissance courses. This article is an effort in the cognition of chivalry taking chivalrous actions and deeds into consideration by researching and analyzing the history of chivalry licenses and adapting it to the Adab-ol-mashgh educational context. Fotovat-nameh and its contents are authentic Adab-ol-mashghs with calligraphy studies so it is calligraphers Fotovat-nameh and it has the same impact on calligraphy that Fotovat-nameh had on the traditional cultures. The behavioral and cultural context has had the same impact on eastern Asia as well. Guiding students how to learn from the master, guidelines, and contexts covering different grounds of learning to use different materials and getting more experienced along the way, these contexts are called “ literature” or “ etiquettes” you can find lectures about using certain kinds of tools and the way that papers are supposed to be and other elements that would help a student to start their journey, etc. This research has been done by a qualitative method and by the method of library study and reviewing historical texts. Its purpose is to clarify the hidden angles of this class of market professions in order to clarify their social status as a class of gentlemen who are culturally considered intellectuals of the market professions. Gentlemen who adhered to all the norms and customs of the ritual of Fotovat, in addition, had the benefit of aesthetics and traditional art, the study of which is very important for the people of art.

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Writer: 

Instructor | Islamic Azad University of Damavand | Damavand | Iran Mehdi | shokry mohammad

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    10
  • Start Page: 

    124
  • End Page: 

    139
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    201
  • Downloads: 

    231
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Subjectivism, a pervasive current in Western thought that largely stems from Descartes' philosophical teachings, began a new view of man. In this new approach, man became the orbital of truth and became the subject of originality, and the man was recognized by us as the foundation of all truths, and it was assumed that the human race, by possessing a power called reason, and by the blessing of using the right way of thinking can achieve a definite and objective knowledge of things. The possibility of this definite and general knowledge of the truths lies in the fact that the mechanism of epistemology is the same in the human race, and the creatures arrive at a single understanding of things by adopting the correct method of cognition. Thus, although Descartes begins his analysis with “ me” as an individual thinker, he eventually arrives at a general inference about man, and his approach to the human species and the human being becomes more and more obsessed with “ us” . This situation is also strongly and weakly maintained in post-Cartesian systems of thought, such as Kant's thought and Hegel's idealism, until in the nineteenth century, with the emergence of individualist existentialist ideas such as Kirkgour, the altruistic view of man was challenged. Thus the human being with all his characteristics is paid attention to. The emergence of existentialist ideas along with Nietzsche's sharp critiques of the foundations of modern thought and the priority he gave to the mind of the creative artist, as well as the foundations of Freudian psychoanalysis, all set the conditions; which gradually turned the public conscience to the element of individuality and became the beginning to shake the foundations of modernity. Artists, who take the basis of creating a work of art from the same public conscience and sometimes even direct it, naturally stay out of the caravan and their taste, which is rightfully the irreplaceable arena of the emergence of individuality, more and more as a means of expressing themselves. They use and define themselves through their artistic creation. Simultaneously with the rapid growth of the industrialization of art in the contemporary period and the formation of a movement called the culture industry and the mechanical reproduction of art (both are interpretations of Adorno), and the recognition of the photographic medium as an art and the subsequent production of communication tools such as cell phones, which were often equipped with cameras, a phenomenon called selfie flourished. A phenomenon that on the one hand is an example of the prevalence of art among the public and on the other hand is a sign of the artist's greater desire to make himself his object. In this article, by examining the philosophical roots of the emerging selfie phenomenon, it is concluded that one of the reasons for the general popularity of this emerging media is the current individualism in the contemporary period resulting from Cartesian subjectivity. The present study is qualitative research that has collected data through the method of studying library documents.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    10
  • Start Page: 

    140
  • End Page: 

    146
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    203
  • Downloads: 

    294
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Today, human societies are facing various phenomena, including the outbreak of viral diseases such as corona, with the spread of which many people in society suffer from behavioral stresses such as frequent hand washing. The authors of the present paper believe that the designers can reduce these obsessive behaviors with the help of product design. The methodology of the research in this article is descriptive-cross-sectional, and is going to examine the relationship between product design and behavioral stress reduction. First, “ the need for disinfecting tools” was hypothesized based on the observations, subsequently the users were provided with some disinfecting tools and their feedback was examined. Due to the current situation regarding coronavirus outbreak and limits for group gatherings in public places, as well as the high cost of manufacturing the designed product, testing in real-life situations was not possible, therefore only questionnaires using the 7-point Likert scale and online surveys were administered. This study resulted in a product design for environmental disinfection, which won international medals. Thus, this paper strives to illuminate the relationship between product design and behavioral stress caused by the outbreak of viral infections such as Coronavirus disease. With regards to the Covid-19 outbreak throughout the world and the transmission speed of the coronavirus which survives on surfaces, people in different societies feel the need to somehow protect themselves against this virus by wearing gloves and regular hand-washing. A great number of people, however, test positive every day despite such precautions. As infectious diseases outbreak continues to spread, fear and anxiety start ruling lives of many people in society and such behaviors may damage the entire society if they keep lasting. Designing a space-saving, portable product that utilizes modern technology to disinfect different surfaces like elevator buttons, subway train handles, debit cards, and so forth will remarkably help societies in the current situation. The coordination between product design and stress relief is not accidental and demands engineering skills plus a high level of creativity, and this is what matters in industrial design. As defined by the Industrial Designers Society of America (IDSA), industrial design is the professional practice of developing ideas for designing products with optimal performance. In this descriptive-cross-sectional study, observation and questionnaires, as well as non-probability sampling, have been employed to collect data. The sample size was estimated at 322 people based on the Morgan table. First, the behavior of the people was carefully studied in one environment and “ the need for disinfecting tools” was hypothesized based on the observations and collected data, subsequently the users were provided with some disinfecting tools and their feedback was examined. Due to the coronavirus outbreak and limits for group gatherings in public places, as well as the high cost of manufacturing the designed product, testing in real-life situations was not possible, therefore only questionnaires and online surveys were used. The target population, from which the sample was drawn, has been identified by administering the questionnaire to the audience through web pages and further circulation among other groups. Given that long questionnaires may bore the audience, only a few brief questions using the 7-point Likert scale were designed and the results were analyzed in Microsoft Excel using Cronbach's Alpha. The research data were obtained from field surveys and library resources. Also, the International Federation of Inventors' Associations website was explored and the designs for portable disinfecting products were collected. With respect to the facts mentioned in this paper and the conducted studies, it seems that product design could be effective in managing behaviors such as stress. However, interventional studies are required for substantiating a claim like this. It would be a great contribution to human societies if the designers could be able to design a product for viral infections outbreaks which absolutely guarantees disinfection of the surroundings.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    10
  • Start Page: 

    147
  • End Page: 

    164
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    202
  • Downloads: 

    214
Abstract: 

The method in carpet designing is the process of revealing the idea by the designer, which begins with choosing the idea and the theme, and ends with the final construction. These stages are divided into two general parts of dividing the space carried out from the first to the fourth stage and, creating the space done from the fifth stage onwards. The personal method is to identify the nine-fold-stage characteristics of the work of an artist distinguishing his artwork from others i. e. choosing the idea, the format of design, determining the frame, the method of repetition, division of design, setting the form of dominant elements, number and type of rotations, the location of main and secondary motifs, and the identifiable construction. This research is to study the personal method of “ Ali Akbar Fadaei” (1884-1959 A. D) starting his work during the Baharestan Era and thus, and maturity of his artistic activity has continued after the Qajar dynasty to the early Pahlavi’ s, during the Persian Carpet Company period. According to his eldest daughter, his mature career coincided with the prosperous period of carpet in this region. The highpoint of his career coincided with the presence of foreign companies e. g. Oriental Carpet Manufacturers (O. C. M( and Atiye bros in Iran. This article has been accomplished based on reviewing 24 Afshan medallion designs out of 64 carpet maps preserved in his family collection, stored in envelopes with his name written on the back as "Kal-Akbar Fadaei" in English. The maps are divided into 4 general categories of Afshan, Medallion, Mihrabi, and Vagire, in terms of design. Afshan designs of this collection are subcategorized as simple, medallion, corner, and tree. The researches accomplished on the Kerman carpet generally refer to the design and color in this region and to some extent the introduction of its prominent manufacturers; but weavers, painters, or designers have been neglected, except in a few cases. This disregard for designers was not only limited to their lives and artworks but also included their methods, so virtually no research on how to organize the design and no explanation on the individual methods are available; thus, no independent research has been done on identifying and introducing Fadaei's works. This paper is based on investigating the method of this second-generation designer of the Kerman carpets, and seeks to answer this question: What are the characteristics of Ali Akbar Fadaei's method, based on the data obtained from the analysis of his 24 Afshan Medallion designs? This study reveals the need to investigate this issue since the characteristics, names, and addresses of Kerman carpet designers including Ali Akbar Fadaei are rarely seen in the remaining documents of the Iranian carpet industry in the Qajar and Pahlavi periods. Therefore, focusing on each of these designers can help to differentiate the history of carpet designers in this region. The research method here is descriptive-analytical, and in terms of purpose, it is developmental. Gathering basic information about Afshan carpets and the position of this artist among the designers has been obtained through a library study. On the other hand, the nine-fold stages of design in each Afshan Medallion design were investigated by referring to the personal archives, and finally, a list of common features has been prepared. The statistical population of this research includes 24 Afshan Medallion designs. Research findings show that the skill in drawing patterns is evident in the studied works, concerning the existence of perfect proportions in them, freedom of action in designing the sketch, and the observance of precise and strict order in designing details and motifs. Frequent use of some designs such as cypress, paisley (with the extension and decorations that are specific to this designer), grape leaves, and fruits have become his signature or identification code in the mentioned samples. Fadaei has attempted to disturb the symmetry in parts of the design on the axes of symmetry. The other features recognizable in the studied works include using suspended and scattered frames in the background and between other patterns to create visual appeal and prevent uniformity. Simultaneous use of large flowers and small clusters and flowers in the background, as one of the methods of composition, sensory interaction with the design in determining the size of the main elements like a medallion, frame, corner, and vase are obvious in this group of works. He has used various bands and rotations (spiral rotations, dancing branches, and sometimes a combination of them) in designing the background, and sometimes has applied hanging bouquets to fill the background. The main other features identified include his skill and ability in designing simple and complex borders. Besides, his interest in designing the border with overlapping and breaking the borderlines with various and beautiful frames is evident, so that the border is considered as one of the attractive and dynamic parts.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    10
  • Start Page: 

    16
  • End Page: 

    29
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    200
  • Downloads: 

    142
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Since sometimes symbols may be manifested in the form of myths in artistic and literary works, thus mythological criticism contributes greatly to the symbolic analysis of such works. Carl Gustav Jung entered the field of mythology by presenting his theory of archetypes and called symbols a kind of archetype. In the paintings of the Ilkhanid Shahnameh, in addition to the characters of the stories, the symbols derived from archetypes were also illustrated. Therefore, by understanding the psychological qualities of Shahnameh characters based on Jung’ s theory of archetypes, we can understand the symbolic analysis of the drawings. The present study intends to find the answer to the following question: Did the painters of the Ilkhanid Shahnameh use mythical themes in their art with ideas that are independent of the text? In this respect and to answer this question, the evolution of individuality in the three archetypes “ Shadow” , “ Anima” , and “ Wise old man” in five paintings of the Ilkhanid Shahnameh are examined in the present research. To this aim, the “ self” (the archetype of order, organization, unity, and oneness) of each individual in the painting is investigated employing these three archetypes. The archetypal representations are then sought based on the character of each hero in the paintings. In order to study Iranian painting from the archetypal perspective or, in general, mythical criticism, the myths should be specifically taken into consideration as a literary genre or style. Thus, the traces of myths can be sought wherever there is literature. In the heroic, mythical, and historical stories of Shahnameh, Firdausi makes the themes of his stories objective and visual. Using some structural elements of the story, such as archetypes, represents the story’ s mythical and heroic characters. Literary criticism can generally be classified into two groups of traditional and modern criticism. What distinguishes traditional literary criticism from traditional one is the emergence of new sciences, including psychology, sociology, mythology, etc. Each of these sciences has influenced literary criticism. One of the theoreticians who looked at myths through a psychological perspective is Carl Gustav Jung. Jung regarded the human psyche as composed of two parts, i. e. conscious and unconscious. The unconscious mind is also divided into personal and collective types. The collective unconscious mind involves codes and symbols which have been common among humans in the past times. He calls these symbols archetypes and considers the human psyche as consisting of several archetypes. These archetypes become conscious in the process of an individual’ s growth to help the character’ s evolution. To be able to examine Iranian painting from the perspective of a critique of mythology, we must see at what point in art, painting has reflected mythical themes. Looking at the history of painting in Iran, it has been found out that Iranian painting in the Ilkhanid period, known as the Tabriz school, evolved into a compiled art; one of the most eloquent examples of which can be observed in the paintings of the great Shahnameh mentioned earlier. Concerning the research question and the significance of the archetypes in the formation of mythological characters of Shahnameh and their manifestation in signs and symbols that can still be used consciously by painters and illustrators, conducting the present study seems necessary. In Jung’ s view, the contents of the collective unconscious, or archetypes, emerge in the form of myths and legends. These archetypes themselves are unknown and invisible but are manifested as dreams, myths, and legends. In this article, Zahak and Fereydoun are interpreted as different manifestations of a single psyche and its developmental stages towards the process of individuality and perfection of personality. The research procedure shows that by using this method, a better understanding of Iranian myths can be obtained, and some dark aspects of it can be clarified. In the paintings of the Ilkhanid period, mythical and heroic themes have been considered by artists, and one of the approaches to painting, i. e. symbolism, has been followed by using archetypes. The paintings of the great Ilkhanid Shahnameh, known as the Shahnameh of Demut in Tabriz I school, are considered as the samples that followed this approach in representing literary concepts. The present research employed a descriptive-analytical method, and the data were collected through library documents including theses, dissertations, and academic journal articles. The findings of the research indicate that the painters and illustrators of this period, have illustrated Shahnameh and the reflection of the mythical themes according to their very own analysis of the characters of the story and with their awareness and knowledge of the archetypes of the patterns. By analyzing the three characters of Fereydoun, Zal, and Esfandiar, it has been found out that the archetypal features of these three heroes are reflected in the paintings.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    10
  • Start Page: 

    30
  • End Page: 

    42
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    174
  • Downloads: 

    196
Abstract: 

Having a specific view towards the subject of the human body is a characteristic of Gilles Deleuze's philosophy, one of the most influential experimentalist philosophers of the 20th century. This French philosopher built his postmodern philosophy based on human being and body structure. He had one of the most materialistic points of view towards the life and human body. Body without Organs is one of the most important concepts of his approach that demonstrates the framework of Deleuze’ s philosophy about human. The body without organs is the result of putting the dualistic view-soul and body-away. With pursuing body without subject or a fixed center which was brought up by Phenomenologists like Husserl and Merleau-Ponty in the past, Deleuze took one step forward and brought up the new term: body without organs. The human, resulting from this view is forming constantly in his life beyond gender, identity, or any kind of fixed structure; and these uninterrupted happenings cause his existence; in other words, an evolving body that does not stop moving and changing until death. Since this subject was one of the important issues for Deleuze, he had some writings and interviews about it. One of the most famous samples of Deleuze’ s philosophy in art is the interpretation of Bacon’ s paintings in the book “ Francis Bacon: The Logic of Sensation” . Here we want to go further and interpret one of the other modern artist’ s artworks via this approach. Picasso could be one of these artists because when reviewing his artworks, we found some clues that make his works readable by Deleuze's philosophy. In some of Picasso’ s paintings, the human bodies are so different from classical stereotypes and we confront with features of the formless body that is very similar to the body without organs of Deleuze e. g. in Picasso’ s self-portraits that he continued to paint during his life, we face multi-pieces yet coherent bodies that are broken in time, re-arranged, and made again. At the end of this series, we can find a character who could be rebuilt many times despite its constant identity. Another clue in Picasso’ s painting is related to the gender of the subjects. We can see, especially in the painter’ s later paintings, the issue of gender is considered as a fluid factor, and it can be seen that Picasso sometimes did not emphasize the sexual identity of his figures either. Ultimately, some of Picasso’ s paintings demonstrate that the feelings of the subject, who is appointed in a special situation, is the main issue of a scene. It means the artist wants to show a particular situation that is shaped by the role and interaction of the subjects with the painting space. So from this point of view, the identity of the subjects or their genders couldn’ t be the main factor for paintings, while the artist focuses on atmosphere and feelings in each picture. This view is beyond merely following the form and style in painting and shows the artist’ s point of view about the subject of human. Assuming that Picasso intended to offer a new definition of the body, this article claims that his works can be considered as a version of Deleuze’ s body without organs philosophy. So we asked this question: Is it possible to compare some of Picasso’ s artworks, especially the late works of the artist, with the body without organs of Deleuze's philosophy? The importance of this article is to find the logical connection between postmodern philosophy and art, which could be a suitable way to compare visual modern arts with philosophy. The method of research in this article is descriptive-analytical. By using reliable library resources, at first, the fundamentals of postmodernism are reviewed, then Deleuze’ s view regarding body is defined, and following that the concept of the body without organs and gender is fully explained; and finally, in the analytical part, body in Picasso’ s paintings is discussed and interpreted considering the theoretical framework of the research. Also, the data in a comparative table answered the hypothesis of the paper which means some of Picasso’ s paintings are comparable with the philosophy of Deleuze’ s. It should be noted that in the research literature, the documents and sources that are somewhat close to the present subject have been completely mentioned.

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Writer: 

Farhangpour Yasaman

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    10
  • Start Page: 

    4
  • End Page: 

    15
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    114
  • Downloads: 

    122
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

The concept of restoration in modern society is considered as a significant performance aiming at conservation of material value left from the past, and thus the phrase restorer is applied to name a person who, aside from having cultural and historical information, is familiar with art technics, chemical properties of substances, and also has sufficient proficiency in using the computer and software in the field of restoring works of art. This field is new in various academic systems in the world and it has a long way to go to reach social maturity. Because the restoration of antiquities requires financial and organizational support first and foremost, in recent decades, this field has received much attention and development in many European countries, which, of course, has led to the expansion of studies and the opening of new perspectives in the science of restoration as a necessary and efficient need. However, the challenge in this research is to explain the processes of restoration, reconstruction, and conservation of artworks from the viewpoint of Cesare Brandi, who is an Italian famous theorist in the field. it is worth mentioning that the data collection is done through library sources. In the process of restoration, maintaining the quiddity of the artwork, the goal of the artist, and paying attention to intangible dimensions of the work is of much significance for a restorer. Brandi believed that transmission of the artwork to posterity in the closest form to its original is the most important base for the restorer. Referring to his written documents, it can be claimed that this theorist paid more attention to the philosophy of restoration rather than the technic in artwork restoration and expressed his point of view in three basic principles. Restoration of antiquities has gained a new place today thanks to the theories proposed by Cesare Brandi, and the restoration of works alone has become an advanced method for scientific and historical research on any work of art. Considering the distinction between restoration in the concept of reconstruction and reclamation of artwork and its conservation, this research matches the restoration of the painting Saint Sebastiano (1502 A. D. ) with these opinions by an adaptive-analytical method and laboratory analysis. Since there are many works from the middle ages and Renaissance in Italy which need to be restored, this country became a pioneer in the fields of history and theories both in the laboratory and practical section. The restoration of the mentioned artwork that is done in the Restoration Laboratory of Milan (2014-2018 A. D. ), is considered as one of the most successful reconstructions of the present century and this article, aside from surveying the historical and technical aspects of this painting, proceeds to study the different processes and sideways of restoration; trying to introduce the various devices used by restorers. In general, this restoration can be divided into three stages: historical-technical research, cleaning, and staining. One of the most important results of this restoration is Raphael's use of various materials such as glass and ivory, which the restorers saw thanks to the use of strong microscopes. According to the available documents, the mainframe of this work has a golden color, and unfortunately, its fate is unknown today, and the frame that exists now was made in the fourth decade of the twentieth century. This frame had some problems in colors and the restorers of the Museum of Western Art in Tokyo restored the frame. So we can tell this restoration is one of the most completes ones in Europe. Eventually, this survey concluded that the restoration of each artwork is determined by the type of work, a complete consideration of materials used by the artists, and level of damage. This process, through which the restorers survey the artwork by special cameras like InGaAs and different microscopes like ESEM is, per se, one of the best and the most perfect methods for historical studies about each artwork which can reveal its obvious aspects.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    10
  • Start Page: 

    43
  • End Page: 

    56
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    8230
  • Downloads: 

    3992
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

The applied arts and decorative motifs painted on them have been the most important tools for transmitting culture as well as artistic and conceptual traditions among ancient nations, which in addition to messaging, have a variety of shapes and forms and a variety of combinations. In the meantime, one of the most important motifs that have always been considered and its usage has continued with the change of rituals and artistic developments, is the very important motif of birds in terms of design and content, used in various arts, especially pottery. This study aims to explain and evaluate the types of bird drawing and analysis methods in the composition of discovered potteries in three regions of Tabarestan, Deilaman, and Jorjan. The present study seeks an answer to the following question: What is the attitude in designing and combining bird motifs in Tabarestan, Jorjan, and Deilaman potteries? To study and survey nine samples of pottery (with the motif of birds), related to the 4th to 7th centuries A. H. (after Hijrat) have been selected. The motif of birds on the potteries of Jorjan and Tabarestan regions has more diversity compared to Deilaman potteries. Exaggeration in the appearance of birds, lack of proportion in design, simplification, and magnification in some parts of the body and more dynamism and movement of the bird form compared to the other two regions are the most important features of the motif of birds in Jorjan region. In the Tabarestan region, these motifs have been represented in various forms and special methods such as abstraction and simplification and sometimes being close to nature. It is noteworthy that these features distinguish it from the drawings of Jorjan and Deilaman regions. In the Deilaman region, all the studied figures have been designed and built in the form of realism and natural sizes. The proximity of the bodies to their true nature, disproportionate and unbalanced exaggerations in the head, neck, and body of the bodies of the figures are the characteristics of the motif of the bird in this region. At the same time, the artist's attention to the bird's appearance has sometimes prevented him from paying attention to the formal aesthetics and visual language content. However, this attitude is observed in the design, not in all figures, but most works. The research method in this study is descriptive and analytical and gathering the data and information has been accomplished through field and library study. The results show that in line with the images studied, three methods of realistic, meta-realistic, and abstract design have been revealed. Realistic motifs are devoid of any creativity and visual value due to their adaptation of nature, and the emphasis on more detail in the actual shape of the bird's body and its natural dimensions and size, as well as the artist's close connection with nature, is very evident. While in the unrealistic motifs, the artist's imagination is perceivable in depicting the motif of the bird and the exaggeration of its components, in which the inner sensitivity, emotions, and imagination are obvious. Also, in the abstract approach, the motifs are based on the basic essence of the forms and the visual value hidden in these works is based on a kind of aesthetics and is not easily understood. The motifs are inspired by nature and the environment around them, but the artist changes it with his imagination and taste so much that he creates an abstract role of nature. On the other hand, in this attitude, there is less of a sign of reality and visual aesthetics is gained instead. The concepts between lines and colors are the same; to understand it, every viewer must rely on their perceptions. In analyzing the types of composition in these pottery works, we are faced with various types of compositions such as symmetrical, asymmetrical, diffused, circular, and radial, the most common example of which is related to the Tabarestan region. In Jorjan province, the diffuse component is very obvious, and in the Deilaman region, all the studied samples have symmetrical composition.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    10
  • Start Page: 

    56
  • End Page: 

    64
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    139
  • Downloads: 

    88
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Self-taught art is a way of art expression that defines and recognizes based on its independence from the world of formal art. These works reflect its creators' endeavor to express their inner world in strange and unfamiliar ways. The self-taught artist does not start working with the usual motivations of creating art, such as displaying and selling but creating spontaneously in an isolated condition without any connection and knowledge about official art space. This art can be considered as one of the sub-categories of the “ Art Brut” or in another term “ Outsider Art” . In this definition, those who are interested in self-taught art, are observed not as a psychiatry document, but as an aesthetic experience. Developments of nineteenth-century and modernism have provided grounds for attention to self-taught art as an inspiring and innovative resource, which is continuing up to now. These works have exactly what European art had lost in its long journey; that means strong representation, structural transparency, and simple technique. This change in approach to these works that have not previously had any place in the official art world has raised many questions. The main purpose of this study is to determine the backgrounds of self-taught art and its position in the art world based on the theories of a great philosopher of contemporary art, Arthur Danto and tries to answer these questions: “ Based on which definitions and criteria the self-taught objects can be accepted as artworks? ” , and “ How the works that neither its creators consider them as artwork and nor themselves as an artist, become a branch of contemporary art? ” Danto believes that “ being art” means being in a field as “ art world” ; so work is not considered as art until it has been placed in the art world. But Danto disagrees with the openness of the art concept, which has been interpreted as “ anti-essentialism” , and he says that it does not lead to a correct definition of Art to say “ art is imitation” or “ art is not imitation” , so he has set criteria for artwork. He argues that artworks are a “ representation” of something else, not necessarily in the sense that they are exactly like their subject, but in the broader concept that they are about something. Since all of the artworks are about something, they have meaning, and meanings are embodied in them, so Danto says that artworks are “ Meaning Embodied” . The second characteristic he refers to is “ Dream-like” , and says that artworks are like dreams which contain visible qualities, but may not be real, so he defines art as “ Awakening Dreams” . Accordingly, Danto uses these characteristics, “ Meaning Embodied” and “ Dream-like” , as criteria for artwork. Regarding the position of self-taught artists, Danto states that while the members of the “ art world” have common principles, the outsider artists are unable to participate in that conversation for various reasons. They do not know the language of the art world discourse to talk about their works, so behaved with them as a neurotic human, not as an artist. According to Danto's definition of art and his criterion for artwork, we can say that self-taught work can be considered as an art because it has those characteristics. Answer to this question that “ How these works become a branch of contemporary art? ” reveals the role and importance of the art world. The self-taught artist is deprived of entering the official art world because of his social status as a person who does not know the defined art rules and his position as an artist. So they are still in a fragile situation where their presence in the art spaces depends on other important and influential actors of the art world, and they are the ones who can determine the position of self-taught art and enter it as an artwork to the galleries, museums and even art history. Members of the art world control the dominant narrative, and over the past century, they have selected among outsider artists. As the art world has been able to turn Andy Warhol's “ Brillo Box” into art, so they could change the work of self-taught art to something that was never meant to be. Placing the work in the space of a white cube gallery, with impressive lights and delicate frames, often obscures the main goals of the self-taught artist. Ultimately, power remains in the hands of the art world, the power of choice, the power of evaluation, and the power of financial valuation. This research is fundamental research that has been done in a descriptive-analytical method and data collecting through the library method among the available resources in the field of self-taught art. The tools used are in the form of taking notes and finally, by qualitatively analyzing the information, an attempt has been made to give appropriate answers to the questions raised.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    10
  • Start Page: 

    65
  • End Page: 

    80
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    193
  • Downloads: 

    213
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

When investigating the historical roots of many cultures and beliefs that accompany phenomena such as performing rituals (festivals and mourning) and creating artworks, there are narratives with a deep scope of effect on the lives of the ancient people; to the extent that these narratives presented an explanation and reason for every natural and supernatural phenomenon. These narratives that are introduced to us as "myths", play a key role in shaping the visual culture of ancient peoples and civilizations, since illustration and visual forming of these narratives can be seen as the earliest artistic attempts of these cultures. Considering the importance of myths, there have been and still are various, and sometimes contradictory, approaches toward this phenomenon, according to which, myth is sometimes introduced as linguistic disease and distress of peoples. Ernst Cassirer is among those who have struggled to upgrade myth into a human cognitive form. Unlike Kant, Cassirer believed that human cognitive forms are not limited to rational patterns, rather irrational patterns also have a part to play in the human cognition and knowledge processes. Therefore, he introduced myth as one of the major irrational cognition forms of human life. According to Cassirer, the perceptions and the world created in mythology have certain features and contents that are not easy to grasp and accept based on the current standards of theoretical and rational knowledge. Therefore, these principles must be investigated within the framework of an irrational cognitive mechanism of the myths under study. In other words, rationality, as the dominant cognitive tool in the contemporary world, is not capable of properly explaining phenomena whose origin and nature flow from irrational foundations. Rationalism and its cognitive tools, therefore, cannot be used as similar models for analyzing the artworks of different civilizations. The problems are doubled when judging and reviewing non-Europeans artworks, particularly those created before the rise of Western civilization. The contemporary humans who live within the framework of knowledge and rational form of cognition assess the worlds existing before them and other than themselves using the same present-day rationality. They seek their entire world in rational cognition, even though rationality and ways of rational perception are only one of the paths of cognition and one of the types of human knowledge. This negligence is the root cause of cognitive misunderstanding of ancient culture and civilizations. On the other hand, similar to other narrative forms, the myth has presented visual imagination with an undeniable role. As such, a mythical narrative consists of a combination of mental, and of course imaginary, images that are consolidated based on a specific model and objective. In these narratives, the human knowledge and cognition of its self and its surroundings are expressed as special and mental (and also substantive) images. These mythical narratives and the visual world created in them have special features and contents which themselves are created based on the foundations of mythical knowledge. It seems that recovering these principles can bring us to an understanding of why and how the type of images shaped in mythology was created. The main focus of this study is to discover the relationship between the main features and contents of mythical knowledge (from the perspectives of Cassirer) and their type of visual representations in an example of ancient mythology, aiming to take effective steps toward a theoretical model for formal (visual) and content analysis and explanation of mythologies based on the fundamental features and content that shape mythical knowledge. The main research questions are: What are the fundamental features and contents of myth (as a cognitive form) from the perspective of Cassirer? What are the effects of the features and contents of mythical cognitive form on visual representations in a Mesopotamian mythical narrative from the perspective of Cassirer? The research method was descriptive-analytical, including the introduction of the features and contents of myth as a cognitive form and analysis of an example of mythical illustration and art based on these contents. The research data was collected through secondary research and analyzed qualitatively. The sample under study was a protective tablet for the sick, attributed to Pazuzu from the Neo-Babylon era (in the Mesopotamian civilization). According to the results, the main distinctions in features and content of mythical knowledge compared to rational cognition and knowledge were identified in differentiation and unification of phenomena and affairs, the quality orientation of phenomena, the concept of causality, perceptual mediators (space, time, and number) and representation of phenomena and affairs. In the analysis of the Mesopotamian case study, features such as spatial differentiation in mythical knowledge, the qualitative nature of mythical numbers, the substantive realization of mental and abstract phenomena and affairs, and semiotic representation of phenomena were analyzed.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    10
  • Start Page: 

    81
  • End Page: 

    97
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    193
  • Downloads: 

    171
Abstract: 

In the contemporary world, life is very much influenced by the outside environment and thus such spaces provide the best opportunity for graphic designers. This opportunity is sometimes as short as a pause, but sometimes it may deeply affect the viewer or lead to the audience interacting with the work and creating a new meaning. We see this phenomenon in developed countries as graphics or interactive graphics. Of course, most of these interactions are fun and to introduce and sell promotional products. John Fiske’ s main concern is how to construct cultural meaning in societies. His areas of interest include popular culture, media culture, and television studies. And he believes that audiences with different cultural backgrounds and identities receive texts differently. He also emphasizes in his theories the extraordinary role of the "reader" in the process of deciphering media texts. The interaction between the audiences is one of the components of modern art. Attention to interaction, which is to emphasize the centrality of the audience in the formation of the work, leaves the work as much as possible from the artist's intentions and, considers the importance of void and insignificant and considers the text and how to read it important. The development of interactive graphics as contemporary art and based on modern industries is very important in contemporary advertising. In the direction of this interaction and according to the definitions of interactive graphics, the approaches of Fiske and the importance of (sender), how to read the message, the importance of meaning in his interpretations, the necessity of how to interpret and read these messages and produce meaning according to texts and cultures seem important and practical in terms of environmental education. Many new media rely on digital technology. The amazing capability, accessibility, and speed of this technology are unparalleled in meeting the needs of contemporary man. And of course, with this development and based on these new capabilities, the element of interaction has become a very important phenomenon of environmental advertising. The growth of interactive approaches in art coincides with the emergence of so-called postmodern ideas, new and influential possibilities that the former had not seen so rapidly evolving in the human race. And this phenomenon has created new and different capabilities in this category: Media that rely on digital technology. According to the characteristics expressed in John Fiske's transitional approach, and the issue of communication, change, and intentional behavior modification, the senders send passwords and the recipients decrypt them. But this trend has sometimes been towards the unification and domination of the media, which has either propaganda, commercial or political requirements. . . while Fiske considers the decoders, who are the same audience, as the leaders of meaning production and cultural defenders. He has always been at the forefront of the fight against victimizing media audiences as awkward and passive consumers. And in this case, the importance of the encoder and the type of encryption becomes more important. Fiske, therefore, in expressing the transitional approach, considers communication as a process by which one influences how another person acts and mentality as well. If the effect is different from what was intended or the effect is less than that, the problem of communication failure is raised and seeks to analyze the work process to find the cause of failure. And so, this approach has also been called the "process". This belief opens up for us how, according to Fiske, we can be safe with cultural backgrounds and identities, and with modern tools and technology in interactive graphics and interpretation of meaning in the system of indigenous texts, to spread cultural propaganda and take steps to protect the environment. This research seeks to answer the question of what is the transmission of the message through interactive graphics based on the theories of John Fisk, to create a culture and produce meaning by the audience; and how is this important in the development of environmental protection? And tries to hypothesize that interactive graphics, seems able to carry multiple meanings and engage the audience for purposeful environmental cultural education in the production of polysemous messages, coding, and decoding by the audience. The research first examines in a descriptive-analytical manner, the basic concepts of John Fisk theories and the transitional and ritual approach in the strategy of how to convey the message. Afterward, relying on his semiotics to describe the relationship of the audience with the message and convey the meanings of cultural messages with the interactive graphic event is analyzed. It seems that environmental education could be influenced with the help of the interactive environmental graphics, the proximity of the effective message, and the active and involved audience i. e. being effective, achieving empathy, arousing the audience's environmental sensitivities such as global warming crisis and rising water levels, drought.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2021
  • Volume: 

    -
  • Issue: 

    10
  • Start Page: 

    98
  • End Page: 

    111
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    172
  • Downloads: 

    205
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

The computer's calligraphy includes a set of software and calligraphy pens. Since the invention of the Nasta'liq calligraphy in Iran, it has undergone many changes in its path of cohesion, the most important of which was initially due to the arrival of the printing industry in Iran and the contemporary period due to the advent of computer technology. Computer fonts have been updated in the field of calligraphy by the production of calligraphy software and, therefore, the study of changes in calligraphy through such writings methods requires illuminating the principles and rules of traditional calligraphy to recognize the achievements and challenges of the new computer writing software. The present study aims to explain the criteria for qualitative evaluation of the implementation of calligraphy in computers based on traditional principles and rules, and thus seeks to answer the question of how to achieve criteria based on traditional principles and rules of calligraphy that are effective in assessing the quality of computer letters, and to what extent can be knowing the style of calligraphers effective in explaining these criteria. The method of research is descriptive-analytical, and the method of collecting data is through library study. The approach of this paper is comparative and the method of analysis is qualitative. The statistical population is a collection of pens and software capable of writing Nasta’ liq. The number of samples studied includes Kelk software, Mir Emad software, and Mirza Pen, each of which is the result of the handwriting of three calligraphy professors i. e. Abbas Akhavin, Amir Ahmad Falsafi, and Mirza Gholamreza Isfahani. In this regard, first-hand sources that have been directly related to the research include documents regarding the theoretical texts, books, theories, and documented sources in the field of calligraphy; and due to the novelty of the subject concerning punctuation, the researcher had to spend a lot of time researching and collecting data in the field, and thus the bulk of the information is obtained by collecting images and comparative comparisons of computer writings with various aspects of the Nasta’ liq handwriting in terms of the form and position of the dots. Examining the quality of performing the letters in three examples of computer scripts i. e. Kelk software, Mir Emad software, and Mirza Pen and based on the special rules and principles of Nasta'liq calligraphy includes: the center of the pen and pen angles, the quality of distant lines in computer-drawn letters, letter connections and the turning points in the ascent and descent sections of the lines, and the distance and proximity of the shape of computer letters compared to the traditional calligraphy. As it was observed, explaining the necessary criteria for examining the quality of computer letters, first requires extracting the contents of the computer and handwritten letters and then comparatively comparing them in computer and on paper, based on four criteria i. e. principle, proportion, composition, the seat of the letter. In addition to the general principles and rules of calligraphy, since the pattern in the production of all the three software is different and specific to the style of a master, and since the elegance and sweetness of calligraphy rely on the variety of methods, therefore, knowing the style of each calligrapher and comparing it with its computer sample is decisive in explaining the quality criteria. As a result, it was found that computer scripts to comply with the general principles and rules of calligraphy are properly designed. But where we talk about the unique methods of calligraphers and the facade of their handwriting in the computer, it is necessary to categorize the critical components to make the computer fonts more close and similar to the real handwritten scripts of the calligraphers. Although computer fonts are already designed and in use, the following tips can be modified and followed by the letter designer: The most important point is the skill and knowledge of methods, and this includes paying attention to the turning points of letters and coherence in the drawing of words, accuracy in the shape of letters in terms of strengths and weaknesses, descent and ascent and the correct performance in drawing the teeth in Nasta’ liq handwriting.

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