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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID1
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    1395
  • Volume: 

    18
  • Issue: 

    1 (مسلسل 68)
  • Start Page: 

    0
  • End Page: 

    0
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    67
  • Downloads: 

    34
Abstract: 

زمینه و هدف: هدف این پژوهش مطالعه نحوه فرایند اندر کنش پولک های رسی - آلاینده فلز سنگین - آهک در طی زمان از منظر ریزساختار است.روش بررسی: برای رسیدن به این هدف، درصدهای مختلف آهک به خاک رسی طبیعی حاوی آلاینده فلز سنگین روی افزوده شده و مکانیزم نگه داری آلاینده توسط بررسی تغییرات pH و ارزیابی مطالعه ریزساختاری (XRD) مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته است.یافته ها: نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان می دهد که افزایش 10% آهک علاوه بر فرایند تثبیت موجب شده در غلظت 250 cmol/kg-soil آلاینده فلز سنگین روی، میزان نگه داری آلاینده بیش از 37% افزایش یابد. ارزیابی پراش پرتو ایکس نشان می دهد که حضور آلاینده فلز سنگین موجب کاهش فرایند اندرکنش آهک و رس و متعاقب آن کاهش تشکیل نانوساختار هیدرات سیلیکات کلسیم (C-S-H) و هیدرات آلومینیات کلسیم (C-A-H) شده است. بر اساس نتایج آزمایش پراش اشعه ایکس و قابلیت نگه داری آلاینده در نمونه های اصلاح شده با کمتر از 6% آهک، احتمالا علت اصلی کاهش شدت قله نظیر کانی رسی، حضور آلاینده فلز سنگین بوده است.نتیجه گیری: نتایج تحقیق حاضر نشان میدهد که تشکیل نانوساختار C-S-H به واسطه مساحت سطح ویژه زیاد، مشخصه های جذب را بهبود می بخشد و از طریق کپسوله کردن یون های فلز سنگین (جامدسازی) میزان تحرک پذیری آلاینده را کاهش می دهد. همچنین حضور آلاینده فلز سنگین روی سبب کاهش مقدار تشکیل نانوساختار C-S-H می شود. به نحوی که حضور  25 cmol/kg-soilآلاینده فلز سنگین روی، شدت قله نانوساختار C-S-H را حدود CpS 90 کاهش داده است.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    1395
  • Volume: 

    18
  • Issue: 

    1 (مسلسل 68)
  • Start Page: 

    0
  • End Page: 

    0
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    93
  • Downloads: 

    35
Abstract: 

زمینه و هدف: جنگل های مانگرو جزیره قشم در سواحل جنوبی ایران و نزدیک به بالاترین عرض جغرافیایی پراکنش مانگروهای جنوب شرقی آسیا قرار دارند. با توجه به اهمیت جنگل-های مانگرو ایران از جمیع جهات و معرفی آن ها به عنوان یکی از مهم ترین اکوسیتم های جهان و تخریب روز افزون این مواهب طبیعی، حفظ، احیا و توسعه جنگل های مذبور از اهمیت بسزایی برخوردار است.روش بررسی: در این مطالعه ابتدا سطح جنگل های موجود در سال های 1988، 1998 و 2008 در شمال غربی جزیره قشم تعیین شد و سپس با مقایسه داده های ماهواره ای در دو دوره 1998- 1988 و همچنین 2008- 1998 آشکارسازی تغییرات انجام شد.یافته ها: نتایج بررسی نشان داد که طی دو دهه گذشته تغییرات چشم گیری در این اراضی اتفاق افتاده است. در دوره اول، مجموع وسعت جنگل از 5160.52 هکتار در سال 1988 به 5308.32 هکتار در سال 1998 افزایش یافته و در واقع در طول 10 سال توده جنگلی با افزایش 147.7 هکتار(حدود 2.8%)، توسعه داشته است. این رشد و توسعه را می توان رشد متوسط جنگل با نرخ سالانه 0.28 درصد معادل 14.7 هکتار در سال در طول این دوره برشمرد. در دوره دوم، سطح جنگل از 5308.32 هکتار در سال 1998 به 5512.7 هکتار در سال 2008 افزایش یافته که در واقع در طول 10 سال توده جنگلی با افزایش 204.4 هکتار معادل 3.8 درصد توسعه داشته است. این توسعه را می توان رشد متوسط جنگل با نرخ سالانه 0.38 درصد معادل 20.4 هکتار در سال در طول دوره دوم برشمرد. در این مطالعه عامل اصلی توسعه سطح جنگل های مانگرو تجدید حیات طبیعی و در مواردی جنگل کاری های صورت گرفته در این مناطق بوده است.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2016
  • Volume: 

    18
  • Issue: 

    1 (68)
  • Start Page: 

    1
  • End Page: 

    12
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    632
  • Views: 

    458
  • Downloads: 

    137
Abstract: 

Background and Objective: Because of the water deficiency, people's requirements and high costs of refining especially in urban zones, water resources management is very essential. Zabol Chahnimeh reservoirs are three natural and big cavities in the south of Sistan Plain Located in South-Eastern Iran and It Includes 50 Millions square meter extent. Stored Water In These Cavities Are Used To Sistan Earth And For Providing Drink Water of Zabol And Zahedan Cities. Because of the drink and agricultural usage and for investigation of water quality of chah-nimeh reservoirs, this research has been done in one year.Methods: In this research density of Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, SO42- and EC, TDS, TH parameters have been analyzed in 9 stations, then results have been rebounded on schuler & vilcoks diagrams.Findings: Results showed the quality of water in reservoirs viewpoint of drinking sited in acceptable stage and viewpoint of agricultural sited in C3S1 (average quality) stage.Discussion and Conclusion: finally, if the texture of soil be light, we can use water of these reservoirs for agricultural activities.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2016
  • Volume: 

    18
  • Issue: 

    1 (68)
  • Start Page: 

    107
  • End Page: 

    121
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    374
  • Downloads: 

    153
Abstract: 

Background and Objective: Air pollution is one of the environmental problems in recent years and development of societies and industrialization and technological progress has become a serious threat to the mankind. Air pollution causes the spread of disease and subsequently more health care fund is needed in communities. This problem has imposed an economic burden on the society and government channels such as improvement of health indicators and increased human capital and labor productivity and it is followed by economic growth. Nowadays many countries recognized the importance of environmental issues and they lay down some rules and as the result the risks of this issue at the national level or international agreements have been set.Method: It is an applied research and the method of the study is causation and the method of research and its modality is based on presumption.Findings: The main purpose of this article is investigate the relationship between the level of effectiveness of air pollution as an indicator of environmental quality and Health Expenditure as an indicator of Health Economics in selected middle income countries and countries with the highest air pollution by using panel data.Discussion and Conclusion: The results of the estimated model using Fixed Effects among the selected countries for period 2000-2012 illustrates that the effect of air pollution on Health Expenditure is significant and positive.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2016
  • Volume: 

    18
  • Issue: 

    1 (68)
  • Start Page: 

    123
  • End Page: 

    136
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    229
  • Downloads: 

    150
Abstract: 

Background and Objective: Noise pollution is one of the most important kinds of environmental pollution in urban areas and a large number of people in developing countries are exposed to it. One of the most important concepts and fundamentals of sustainable development in Architecture and urban planning is to utilize plants and vegetation in Building architecture. In a different scale in urban architecture, in recent years, sustainable cities have found that greenery is a key element in reducing noise pollution. The use of vegetation has become an essential aspect in urban planning nowadays. In densely built-up city centers, building envelope greening is often the only possibility to meet this demand.Method: The ability and potential of plants in reducing noise level is noticeable, significant and effective. It is important that which kinds of plants to be used. Two questions are selected and picked to answer as the objectives of this researchFindings: one is measuring the ability in sound level reduction of 10 different shrubs that can be used in the balconies of buildings, and second is to compare these shrubs in this potential in different sound levels. The results are presented in relevant diagrams for each shrub and different sound levelsDiscussion and Conclusion: The results show the Pyracantha had the best performance in 80db, 85db and 100db by 42db, 44db and 37db sound level reduction, also in 90db sound level, Pyracantha, Elaeagnus angustifolia, LigustrumVulgare and Yucca elephantipes had the best performance by approximately 40db reduction in sound level. In 95 db, Elaeagnus angustifolia and Althaea officinalis had a sound level reduction near to 40db and in 105db Yucca elephantipes had the best performance by 40db sound level reduction in comparison with other plant species.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2016
  • Volume: 

    18
  • Issue: 

    1 (68)
  • Start Page: 

    13
  • End Page: 

    20
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    944
  • Downloads: 

    141
Abstract: 

Background and Objective: Water has always some soluble salts, such as sulphate. Sulphate enters the water through different resources such as, dissolved gypsum, waste water of industrial factories and automobiles smoke, dissolved in rain. Presence of sulphate in potable water has an enormous role in creating constant hardness.On the other hand Presence of sulphate with high density in drinking water, causes changes in taste and it's combination with Calcium and Magnesium anions has laxative effect. The goal of this study is to assess the amount of existing sulphate in Yasuj city potable ground water, and determining the procedure of changes in chemical parameters of sulphate and recognizing effective factors on these parameters and preparing qualitative plan for water resources for sulphate parameter by means of GIS tools.Method: In the study described above, 42 specimens in the 7 earely months of the year 1387 were acquired and tested. Sulphate tests were done based on the measuring method of the instrument of Filter photometer (Model: 7000). For analysing the results, Excel software and for preparing qualitative plan, GIS software was used.Findings: This study showed that sulfate levels in water resources by reducing water level in summer and autumn and with a water level of under ground water resources increases.Discussion and Conclusion: Decrease of ground water resources of Yasuj city, causes the sulphate density to increase.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2016
  • Volume: 

    18
  • Issue: 

    1 (68)
  • Start Page: 

    137
  • End Page: 

    148
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    160
  • Downloads: 

    80
Abstract: 

Background and Objective: Green turtle species (Cheloniamydas) is included in the IUCN organization’s category of protected species. In the issue of preserving the environment and especially the protection of this endangered species, there is more beneficial investment than educating enhancing public awareness and making a wake conscience in society about the nature and existence of such sources. In the current research the level of environmental awareness of trustee managements considering their importance including fisheries experts, natural resources and the environment of the Chabahar in the protection of the green turtle(Cheloniamydas) have been reviewed.Method: The research method is descriptive- inferential statistics and the information has been collected to form field. The community consists of 108 numbers of experts in fishery, natural resources and environment offices as trustee management environment were chosen. The research tool was self-made questionnaire that its validity confirmed by group of professors and its sustainability according to Cronbach's alpha coefficient 78% was calculated. Questionnaires data analysis using SPSS software is done in two forms of descriptive and inferential.Findings: the results show the awareness of trustee management in five fields including eco-biology and the importance of green turtle species, all kinds of threats for the green turtle, the necessity and urgency of green turtle conservation and it’s environmental status, the role of individuals in protection of turtles and the desire to contribute in training and protection programs and the necessity of holding educational programs is high but the awareness of fishery and natural resources experts in macro-environment politics is very low.Discussion and Conclusion: The formulation of appropriate laws and regulations in the field of the protection of endangered species and the optimal implementation of the existing rules of the integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) in the level of knowledge an awareness in the field of the protection of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) are essential. According to experts in the field creating and supporting the public organizations (NGO) in the town are preferred.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2016
  • Volume: 

    18
  • Issue: 

    1 (68)
  • Start Page: 

    149
  • End Page: 

    161
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    395
  • Downloads: 

    124
Abstract: 

Background and Objective: In recent years environmental issues have received greater attention within academic circles and society and the environment has become a major social issue for larger numbers of people than ever before. So the role of gender in environmental orientation is emphasized. Among various theories of the environmental sociology eco-feminism theory argues that there is a difference in environmental attitudes and behavior in favor of women.Method: This study will investigate whether a potential difference of environmental attitudes between men and women could be explained by eco-feminism theory?Findings: In this research, environmental attitude has been evaluated based on the Dunlap and Van-Liere (1978) scale. Methodologically survey method was applied with cluster sampling method to choose the samples. The main tool for collecting data was questionnaire.Discussion and Conclusion: Overall, the results showed that surveyed samples received a high score in environmental attitudes and gender has not a significant influence on people’s environmental attitudes. Hence eco-feminism theory that focuses on the further supporting of women towards environmental issues was not confirmed experimentally. This could be due to the absence of differences in the socialization of men and women in Iran.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2016
  • Volume: 

    18
  • Issue: 

    1 (68)
  • Start Page: 

    163
  • End Page: 

    175
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    152
  • Downloads: 

    78
Abstract: 

Background and Objective: To evaluate the growth of cypress in different aspects (North West, West, Northeast and Southwest) is a pure planting stand in the area Abbas Abad Behshar was considered.Materials and Methods: Using the inventory network 75 × 100 m and a stratified random method, 50 samples plot 2 R (200 square meters) in different geographical aspects was carry out. In each sample plots, diameter trees and height of four trees were measured. Excel and SPSS statistical software and statistic analyse and necessary calculations were performed.Findings: The results showed that between amplitude with different aspects of growth, there are significant differences, so that the highest diameter increment in the West aspect (0.53 cm) and the lowest in the North East aspect (0.479 cm) were observed. The maximum height growth in the West and South-West aspecs (0.53 m) and the lowest it has been in the northwest aspect (0.49 m) and for average basal area growth, the highest growth in the West aspect (0.87 m square per ha) and lowest in the North west aspect (0.76 square meters per hectare), respectively. The average volume growth to age, respectively, in the aspect of West aspect (4 sylve per ha) and Northeast aspect (6.3 sylve per hectare) were the highest and lowest values.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2016
  • Volume: 

    18
  • Issue: 

    1 (68)
  • Start Page: 

    177
  • End Page: 

    191
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    7836
  • Downloads: 

    3992
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Background and Objective: The Qeshm Island Mangrove forests are located at southern coast of Iran, near the highest latitude of Mangrove in Southeast of Asia. Due to the importance of all aspects of mangrove forest and to prompte it as one of the most significant world ecosystems the ever increasing destruction of thease natural resources, it is essential to preserve, restore and develop thease forest in Iran.Method: In this study, mangrove forest areas were determined for 1988, 1998 and 2008; then, the changes were detected by comparing satellite data related to two periods of 1988-1998 and 1998-2008 in the northwest of Qeshm Island.Findings: Result & diction: The results showed that over the past two decades, significant changes have occurred in this area. In the first period, the total forest area increased from 5160.52 ha in 1988 into 5308.32 ha in 1998, i. e., the forest area had developed 181.7 ha (about 5.3%) during 10 years. In other words, the annual average growth rate of these forests was 0.35 percent, equivalent to 18.7 ha per year during that 10 year period. In the second period, the forest area of developed from 5308.32 ha in 1998 into 5512.7 ha in 2008, i. e., the forest area has been developed 204.4 ha, (3.8 %) in the second period 10 year. In other words, the annual average growth rate of the forest 0.38 percent (20.4 ha) per year during the second period.Discussion and Conclusion: In this study,the main factor for the development of area has been causes natural regeneration and in cases of Afforestation mangrove forests in these areas.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2016
  • Volume: 

    18
  • Issue: 

    1 (68)
  • Start Page: 

    21
  • End Page: 

    29
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    185
  • Downloads: 

    83
Abstract: 

Background and Objective: Air pollutants including gases, vapors and particles, are emitted from different sources. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the most important pollutants in the ambient air of industries. The present study was carried out to identify and measurement of volatile organic compounds in concentration unit of Sar-Cheshmeh Copper Complex.Material and Methods: In this study, sampling of the volatile organic compounds was done by using activated charcoal tube. To identify and measure these compounds gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) were used.Findings: Thirteen volatile organic compounds were identified in the ambient air of concentration unit. Among these compounds, the mean value and maximum concentration of isopropyl alcohol and nonane were 255, 640 mg/m3 and 1577, 14400 mg/m3, respectively.Discussion and Conclusion: By using SPSS software and independent sample t- test, showed that there were no significant difference between mean value concentration of isopropyl alcohol and nonane in the ambient air and TLV values of these compounds (isopropyl alcohol; 200 ppm and nonane; 200 ppm) (P >0.05).

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2016
  • Volume: 

    18
  • Issue: 

    1 (68)
  • Start Page: 

    31
  • End Page: 

    43
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    207
  • Downloads: 

    79
Abstract: 

Background and Objective: Geo-hydrology issues of changes in the water table are very important. Therefore research is necessary to estimate the missing data.Method: One of the important methods to estimate the groundwater table is interpolated. Recent decades due to the spatial correlation between the values of a variable in a well developed area, geo-statistical science concepts and capabilities in the field of statistics to evaluate and predict the spatial variables expanded. In this study, the interpolation of groundwater level of Noorabad plains in the province of Lorestan, using geo-statistical methods, have been studied and the results were compared with conventional smart as artificial neural network. Measures average absolute error, mean bias error, root mean square error and standard deviation, and the methods used to assess the public.Results: The results showed that the spatial variation of groundwater table co-krigings simple circular model had a mean absolute error (0.0001), mean bias error (0.0347), root mean square error (0.0451m) and standard deviation (20.3) priority than other methods were.Discussion and Conclusions: the results showed a high capacity co-krigings interpolation and prediction groundwater level is minimum and maximum values.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2016
  • Volume: 

    18
  • Issue: 

    1 (68)
  • Start Page: 

    45
  • End Page: 

    59
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    195
  • Downloads: 

    102
Abstract: 

Background and Objective: Nowadays, considering environmental issues as a necessity for construction and operation of plenty of major plans is important to achieve sustainable development in the country. In this regard, the environmental assessment is an appropriate tool to achieve the sustainable development objectives. Thus, environmental impacts assessment of establishing Tiam Bistoon Company’s steel and roll factory can reduce costs by providing the proper and reasonable techniques of human and natural resources, and so, has a great effect on short-term and long-term planning. The object of this study is comparing simple and modified RIAM methodes, by using of AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) in environmental impact assessment of Tiam Bistoon Company’s steel and roll factory in two construction and operation phases; and selecting the more appropriate method in prioritization of the impacts.Method: In this study, at first, by reviewing the important criteria in the impact assessment methods, three criteria including the impacts identification, the results interpretation and the impacts value were selected as the important criteria. In the next step, by using of AHP and paired comparison of the criteria in two simple and modified matrixes, the priority of any particular method was determined.Findings: The results showed that the modified matrix with a score of 0.75 was preferred compared to a simple matrix.Discussion and Conclusion: Bydesigningthe modified RIAM method, the environmental impact assessment becomes more accurate and sensitive by removing simple matrix problems.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2016
  • Volume: 

    18
  • Issue: 

    1 (68)
  • Start Page: 

    61
  • End Page: 

    77
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    1218
  • Downloads: 

    189
Abstract: 

Background and Objactive: In the northwestern part of Indian Ocean located Strait of Hormuz and has connected the Persian Gulf to the Oman Sea. Semi diurnal tides, seasonal winds, and buoyancy forces due to density differences waters of the Persian Gulf to the Oman Sea has caused water exchange in the Strait of Hormuz. Ocean currents are the major cause of environmental pollution, maritime transport, oil spills, and moving objects are floating in the Strait of Hormuz. The aim of this research was to study the currents in the northern Strait of Hormuz by Eulerian method to investigate the seasonal variation of currents in this Strait.Method: The current survey by mechanical current meters with an accuracy ± 1 cm /s in the northern part of the Strait of Hormuz at interval time on January to May 2007 with total time duration of 8 days has been done. A mechanical current meter, flow meter and GPS were used in this monitoring. Mechanical current meter model A101 which was made in England, was used. The device accurately measures speed 1 cm / s with an accuracy of 5 degrees, this system can record data every 5 minutes. Flowmeter Model Z30 is a very simple device that uses a blade, a few bars and wires, and a flow indicator is made. It can measure up to 3.5 meters of water speed. By placing this device in the direction of water motion, water flow rate can be recorded.Findings: The analysis of current data shows that semi diurnal tide is the main constituent. Hence this component was removed to consider the residual components due to wind and buoyancy typical deep tidal current is about 30-40 cm/s while the surface tidal current can reach 112 cm/s and the residual current range from 4.5-7.6 cm/s. In research Stations residual current magnitude in winter 5 cm /s is smaller than the spring rate 8 cm/s.Discussion and Conclusion: The effect of tide on currents in the Strait of Hormuz at measurement stations has been shown. By moving from the center towards the north coasts of Strait of Hormuz, the speed of tidal currents will increase. Residual currents are influenced by wind and density differences and moves from the north of Strait of Hormuz into the Persian Gulf. This current movement speed is lower in winter than in spring. Lardner and the monthly mean wind driven current and density gradient current was investigated for Persian Gulf and speed of currents close to the coast of Iran at surface 0.05 m/s to about 0.04 m/s in bottom was estimated. The results obtained of this research with compare the lardner and eta al model is correspond.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2016
  • Volume: 

    18
  • Issue: 

    1 (68)
  • Start Page: 

    79
  • End Page: 

    89
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    232
  • Downloads: 

    98
Abstract: 

Background and Objective: Nowadays remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) are excellent tools to use in land use and land cover mapping. Identification land use /cover arrangement can help to proper land management.Method: In this study for Mouteh wild life sanctuary’s land use land cover mapping IRS-P6, LISS III data which is planned at the same time with field sampling was taken in jun 2006were used. After preparing the satellite data, the geometric correction was applied to an image with the 0.65 mean square error. In the next step, due to being the mountainous zone topographic correction was performed on the image. Finely land use/cover maps were produced by using combinatorial classification method. Vegetation cover percentage map was prepared by using SAVI index and field sampling. Each land use/cover map was produced using several image processing. Using GIS technique Land use/cover layer combined together and land use/cover map was produced. In order to thematic accuracy assess Kappa coefficient and total accuracy were calculated respectively equal: 0.92 and 0.94 that shown proper image classification.Findings: Study result show that vegetation cover with 0-10% crown has highest area in region with 81690(ha) either mining residential area was respectively 828 and 249 (ha).Discussion And Conclusions: Result shown that hybrid classification method has high ability for land use/cover mapping especially when land use/cover have similar reflectance that common classification methods such as supervise and unsupervised classification can not produce proper maps.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2016
  • Volume: 

    18
  • Issue: 

    1 (68)
  • Start Page: 

    91
  • End Page: 

    106
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    9107
  • Downloads: 

    3992
Abstract: 

Background and Objective: The present research aims to investigate the mechanism of clay particles - heavy metal contaminant - lime interaction process over time from a microstructural point of view.Method: To achieve this objective, different percentage of lime was added to a laboratory contaminated natural soil. Then, the mechanism of contaminant retention was analyzed through studying pH changes and evaluating microstructure study (XRD).Findings: The results of this research show that the addition of 10% lime to the contaminated natural clay not only stabilizes the soil, but also for a sample contaminated with 250 cmol/kg-soil concentration of zinc as a heavy metal, more than 37% increase in retention observes. The XRD evaluation shows that the presence of heavy metal contaminant reduces the extent of lime-clay interaction; consequently a reduction in the formation of C-S-H and C-A-H nanostructures happens. Based on the results of XRD experiment and soil contaminant retention measurement of the treated sample with less than 6% lime, the presence of heavy metal contaminant was probably the main cause for peak intensity reduction of clay minerals. The results of this research show that the formation of C-S-H nanostructure improves absorption characteristics due to its high specific surface area. In addition, its formation reduces contaminant mobility through encapsulation of heavy metal ions (solidification).Conclusion: Moreover, the presence of heavy metal contaminant of zinc reduces C-S-H nanostructure formation, in a way that the presence of 25 cmol/kg-soil of heavy metal contaminant of zinc reduces peak intensity of C-S-H nanostructure about 90 CpS.

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