Although in Mexico the cases and the experiences in bioenergy production are limited, at a worldwide level the knowledge in this area has grown up significantly. For example, unlike Argentina and Brazil, Mexico has only recently begun its bioenergy production from agricultural crops. So this paper will present a review of the actual conditions encountered in Mexico as far as biofuels production is con-cerned, in particular biodiesel. In this regard, the driving forces and barriers (economic, political and technical) to the introduction of biodiesel into the Mexican energy matrix are evaluated. In particular, the study has been directed toward the use of biodiesel as the transport fuel, since this productive sector con-sumes roughly 30 per cent of the Mexican energy resources, hence the use of biodiesel as a possible subs-titute for some fossil fuels is gaining more interest and it is foreseen as a strategy for the future. The study also presents the production processes of biodiesel most utilized in Mexico as well as their advantages and drawbacks. At the conclusion of this review, some well-grounded suggestions needed to make deci-sions with respect to the sustainable introduction of biodiesel in the energy matrix are included, bearing in mind the reality of the country.