Background: The most frequent physical finding in infertile men is varicocele, in which one of the mechanisms that can affect seminal parameters is oxidative stress.Objective: Our study aimed, for the first time, to compare the efficacy of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (rhFSH), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) on sperm parameters and fertility after varicocelectomy.Materials and Methods: 113 infertile men with varicocele were divided into four groups. Group A received HCG 5000 IU weekly, group B received HMG 75 IU three times a week, group C received rhFSH 75 IU three times a week and group D received no medical treatment after varicocelectomy.Results: After three months, in group A sperm morphology improved (p=0.007), causing a 32% pregnancy rate. In group B, sperm motility (p=0.023) and morphology (p=0.014) improved, causing a 57% pregnancy rate. In group C, all of the investigated semen parameters increased (p<0.05), causing a 62.5% pregnancy rate. Only rhFSH improved sperm concentrations to>20×106 mL (p=0.027). In group D, sperm morphology increased (p=0.038), but other parameters remained unchanged and no pregnancies occurred.Conclusion: It can be concluded that drugs can reduce induction time for spermatogenesis and fertility in comparison with varicocelectomy alone. For these purposes, rhFSH is more effective than other drugs.