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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID1
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
اسکوپوس
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
ریسرچگیت
strs
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    2 (30)
  • Pages: 

    223-236
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    910
  • Views: 

    33904
  • Downloads: 

    22385
Abstract: 

The temperature depth profiles of six wells in the Motril-Salobren~a aquifer were used as a basis for a comparative analysis involving various parameters to determine their relations and factors influencing the different trends. There is a clear influence of ambient temperature on all the profiles, with a lag time of two to five months.Nevertheless, there are clear differences in the temperature depth profile patterns that can be accounted for by other factors. First, there is a greater influence of localized recharge; Guadalfeo River as opposed to diffuse recharge; irrigation return flow and rainfall. Three of the wells located near the riverbed of the Guadalfeo River have extremely variable temperature-depth profiles and show clear river influence. In springtime, during the highest flood stages of the river due to cold melt water from the Sierra Nevada, the groundwater falls in temperature. During secondary peaks in river flow rates during the autumn due to rainfall, the warm water increases groundwater temperature. The effect of the river recharge decreases with distance from the course since there is less mixing with water from the Guadalfeo River. In addition, there are two temperature-depth profiles in which temperature variations remain shallow and follow a pattern that cannot be attributed to the influence of either of the above two parameters. Among these two cases, the most influential factor is the groundwater flow pattern typical of a discharge zone, characterized by vertical-flow components.

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Download 22385 Citation 910 Refrence 5328
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    2 (30)
  • Pages: 

    237-244
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    49606
  • Downloads: 

    20506
Abstract: 

Airborne hexavalent chromium has been classified as a human respiratory carcinogen and long term exposure has been known to cause ulceration and perforation of the nasal septum, bronchitis, asthma, and liver and kidney damage. Chromium electroplating plants are the major sources of atmospheric chromium and packed-bed scrubbers are the common control devices used to reduce emission of chromic acid mist from electroplating bathes.The feasibility of a new method to remove this pollutant using alginate beads as a biomass derivative was investigated by one factor at a time approach and Taguchi experimental design. Polluted air with different chromium mist concentrations (10-5000 mg/m3) was contacted to alginate beads (3.3-20 g/L), floating in distilled water with adjusted pH (3-7), using an impinger at different temperatures (20 and 35oC), and various velocities (1.2 and 2.4 m/s).Although there were no statistical significant differences between factor levels, the higher ions removal efficiencies were achieved at lower levels of air velocities, pollution concentrations, higher levels of pHs, temperatures, and sorbent concentrations.

Yearly Impact:

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Download 20506 Citation 0 Refrence 8436
Author(s): 

IFELEBUEGU A.O.

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    2 (30)
  • Pages: 

    245-254
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    455
  • Views: 

    34217
  • Downloads: 

    19122
Abstract: 

Endocrine disrupting chemicals are discharged into the environment mainly through wastewater treatment processes. There is a need for better understanding of the fate of these compounds in the unit processes of treatment plant to optimise their removal. The fate of oestrone, 174b–estradiol, 17a–ethinyestradiol and nonylphenol in the unit processes of full scale wastewater treatment plants in the UK, including activated sludge plant, oxidation ditch, biofilter and rotating biological contactor were investigated. The overall removal efficiencies of all the compounds ranged from 41% to 100%. The removals were predominantly during the secondary biological treatment with the rates of removal related to the nitrification rates and the sludge age. The removal efficiency of the treatment processes were in the order activated sludge > oxidation ditch > biofilter > rotating biological contactors. Activated sludge plant configured for biological nutrient removal showed better removal of the endocrine disrupting chemicals compared to conventional activated sludge plant effluents. Tertiary treatment was also significant in the removal process through solids removal. Overall mechanisms of removal were biodegradation and sorption unto sludge biomass. Phytoremediation was also significant in the removal processes. The endocrine disrupting chemicals persisted in the anaerobic sludge digestion process with percentage removals ranging from 10-48%. Sorption of the endocrine disrupting chemicals onto the sludge increased with increasing values for the partitioning coefficients and the organic carbon contents of the sludge.

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Download 19122 Citation 455 Refrence 4440
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    2 (30)
  • Pages: 

    255-266
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    455
  • Views: 

    39483
  • Downloads: 

    18799
Abstract: 

Ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with suspended particulate matter in the ambient air were collected at two sampling sites: urban and suburban residential areas of Yokohama, Japan from 1999 to 2005. The concentrations of target compounds were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total concentrations were higher in urban residential area than suburban residential area. They ranged from 0.31 to 6.16 ng/m3 with a mean of 2.07 ng/m3 and 0.33 to 2.87 ng/m3 with a mean of 1.02 ng/m3 in the urban and suburban residential areas, respectively. The predominant compounds determined both in the urban and suburban residential areas were benzo [b] fluoranthene, benzo [ghi] perylene, indeno [1, 2, 3-cd] pyrene and benzo [e] pyrene. The concentrations of 5- and 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were higher in the urban than the suburban residential area, accounting for 77.3 % and 72.1% of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, respectively. Source identification was performed by principal component analysis. Two principal components were identified for each study area and these accounted for 95.9% and 83.3% of total variance, respectively. The results revealed that stationary source and vehicle emissions were the major pollution sources in the studied areas. The impact of emission regulations for automobiles in large Japanese cities, which were enacted during 2002 and 2003, was also studied. Based on the average total concentration, emission reduction was 47.8% and 18.6% in urban residential and suburban residential areas, respectively.

Yearly Impact:

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Download 18799 Citation 455 Refrence 7548
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    2 (30)
  • Pages: 

    267-280
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    35451
  • Downloads: 

    76164
Abstract: 

Ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with suspended particulate matter in the ambient air were collected at two sampling sites: urban and suburban residential areas of Yokohama, Japan from 1999 to 2005. The concentrations of target compounds were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total concentrations were higher in urban residential area than suburban residential area. They ranged from 0.31 to 6.16 ng/m3 with a mean of 2.07 ng/m3 and 0.33 to 2.87 ng/m3 with a mean of 1.02 ng/m3 in the urban and suburban residential areas, respectively. The predominant compounds determined both in the urban and suburban residential areas were benzo [b] fluoranthene, benzo [ghi] perylene, indeno [1, 2, 3-cd] pyrene and benzo [e] pyrene. The concentrations of 5- and 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were higher in the urban than the suburban residential area, accounting for 77.3 % and 72.1% of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, respectively. Source identification was performed by principal component analysis. Two principal components were identified for each study area and these accounted for 95.9% and 83.3% of total variance, respectively. The results revealed that stationary source and vehicle emissions were the major pollution sources in the studied areas. The impact of emission regulations for automobiles in large Japanese cities, which were enacted during 2002 and 2003, was also studied. Based on the average total concentration, emission reduction was 47.8% and 18.6% in urban residential and suburban residential areas, respectively.

Yearly Impact:

View 35451

Download 76164 Citation 0 Refrence 7992
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    2 (30)
  • Pages: 

    281-290
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    26510
  • Downloads: 

    23786
Abstract: 

In the present study, two bench-scale anaerobic/ anoxic/ oxic submerged membrane bioreactors were used to study the effect of thermochemical sludge disintegration system on the excess sludge production. Among the two membrane bioreactors, one was named experimental membrane bioreactor and another one was named as control membrane bioreactor, where a part of the mixed liquor was treated with thermo chemical and was returned back to membrane bioreactor. Thermo chemical digestion of sludge was carried out at fixed pH (11) and temperature (75oC) for 24% chemical oxygen demand solution. The other one was named control membrane bioreactor and was used as control. The reactors were operated at three different mixed liquor suspended solids range starting from 7500 mg/L to 15000 mg/L. Both of membrane bioreactors were operated at a flux of 17 LMH over a period of 240 days. The designed flux was increased stepwise over a period of one week. During the 240 days of reactor operation, both of membrane bioreactors maintained relatively constant transmembrane pressure. The sludge digestion had no impact on chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of the reactor. The results based on the study indicated that the proposed process configuration has potential to reduce the excess sludge production as well as it didn’t deteriorate the treated water quality.

Yearly Impact:

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Download 23786 Citation 0 Refrence 4884
Author(s): 

KARA S.S.

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    2 (30)
  • Pages: 

    291-304
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    32609
  • Downloads: 

    20711
Abstract: 

An increasing number of companies have focused on reducing the amount of waste properly or gaining value from used products. Facilitating the reverse flow of used products from consumers to manufacturers is a difficult and expensive process depending on the product and transportation type and distance. Another alternative is to outsource these activities. Outsourcing management helps companies for better using of time, energy, labor, technology, capital, resources etc. Moreover, working with wrong partners effects manufacturers’ financial and operational situations.In order to get the best services, manufacturers usually invite several outsourcing companies for providing their tenders and then select the best offer. In this stage, using mathematical decision making techniques may help decision makers to get realistic results. In this paper the proposed methodology integrates two multi-criteria decision methods for ranking alternatives. This methodology is applied to a mid-sized firm operating in the field of electrical and electronic equipment.The results indicate that the most important criterion is cost for determining the best alternative. Besides, as it can be seen from the results, the best alternative for the manufacturer is the second alternative. These results propose a guideline for manufacturers for selecting the best alternative. From the results it can easily be seen that this approach shows its potential advantage in selecting suitable alternative due to its sound logic and easily programmable computation procedure.

Yearly Impact:

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Download 20711 Citation 0 Refrence 6216
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    2 (30)
  • Pages: 

    305-320
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    455
  • Views: 

    32317
  • Downloads: 

    29486
Abstract: 

Restoration of atmospheric carbon in soils has principal many good effects. Arid lands cover more than 40% of the global earth area, but only stock 16% from the global carbon stock. It seems to be a suitable solution for this environmental issue, but still all variables controlling organic carbon in such kinds of soil, was ignored. This study aims to develop two models of organic carbon under clayey and sandy soils in semi-arid Mediterranean zones basing on physical and chemical soil properties. For establishing both models, structural equation modeling was used. For modeling organic carbon, two Tunisian soil databases composed from clayey and sandy soils made respectively, of 450 and 602 soil horizons were used. Using the two databases for all properties, the principal component analysis shows two components for clayey soil; (i) chemical properties and bulk density and (ii) physical properties. For the sandy soil it reveals two components; (i) chemical properties and (ii) physical properties. According to the derived components for each soil category, two models have been built. Structural equation modeling results show that clayey model has proved that organic carbon was controlled by chemical properties and bulk density more than physical properties and sandy model has proved that organic carbon was controlled by chemical properties more than physical properties. The root mean square errors of approximation were 0.079 and 0.050 for the clayey and sandy models, respectively. Then these two models were validated with two other databases from Tunisian dryland soils.

Yearly Impact:

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Download 29486 Citation 455 Refrence 14208
Author(s): 

ZHANG S.Y. | WANG Q.F. | XIE S.G.

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    2 (30)
  • Pages: 

    321-330
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    455
  • Views: 

    36851
  • Downloads: 

    18313
Abstract: 

Leachate and reclaimed wastewater have become the important sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils. However, the information on bioremediation of leachate and reclaimed wastewater-contaminated soils is still lacking. Identification of changes in microbial structure or of enriched genera related to biodegradation could aid identification of particular organisms or consortia capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in these contaminated soils. In this study, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, coupled with 16S Ribosomal ribonucleic acid clone library analysis, was applied to investigate the composition of bacterial community in leachate-contaminated soil or grassland soil irrigated reclaimed wastewater and the response to phenanthrene amendment. Results showed that phenanthrene amendment had significant but different impacts on microbial community structure, dependent on soil source. Several greatly enriched terminal restriction fragments with phenanthrene biodegradation were identified. Moreover, genus rhizobacteria, possibly linked to phenanthrene biodegradation, was firstly reported in this study. This work might provide some new insights into bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-contaminated soils.

Yearly Impact:

View 36851

Download 18313 Citation 455 Refrence 13320
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    2 (30)
  • Pages: 

    331-338
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    455
  • Views: 

    49287
  • Downloads: 

    30307
Abstract: 

Arsenic concentrations of surface waters, soils and plants were surveyed in three contaminated villages of Bijar County. Total arsenic in water samples (4.5 to 280 mg/L) was correlated with electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, total hardness, alkalinity, chloride, sulphate, bicarbonate, calcium and sodium (p< 0.001). Total arsenic in the soils ranged from 105.4 to 1500 mg/kg. Some of the soil factors play an important role in soil arsenic content and its bioavailability for organisms. In general, the arsenic concentrations in plants were low, especially in the most common wild species. Among 13 plant species, the highest mean arsenic concentration was found in leaves of Mentha Longifolia (79.4 mg/kg). Arsenic levels in soils and plants were positively correlated, while the ability of the plants to accumulate the element, expressed by their biological accumulation coefficients and arsenic transfer factors, was independent of the soil arsenic concentration. Relationships between the arsenic concentrations in plants, soils and surface water and the environmental aspects of these relationships have been discussed in comparison with literature data. The accumulation of arsenic in environmental samples (soil, sediment, water, plant, etc.) poses a potential risk to human health due to the transfer of this element in aquatic media, their uptake by plants and subsequent introduction into the food chain.

Yearly Impact:

View 49287

Download 30307 Citation 455 Refrence 6660
Author(s): 

PEISHI Q. | ZHIGUO S. | YUNZHI L.

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    2 (30)
  • Pages: 

    339-350
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    38232
  • Downloads: 

    10988
Abstract: 

The viscous fluid boundary layer equations were adopted to characterize the velocity distribution across the vertical section of the oil slick on moving water. The velocity profile was found to be the combination of linear and parabolic distribution. A numerical model including spreading and dispersion was developed to describe the oil slick’s early movement in the open and ice-covered water. The flume test was conducted to determine the dispersion coefficients (Kx) and the effects of velocity and wave height on the slick’s dispersion were also investigated. In the open water, Kx increased from 4.34 cm2/s to 20.08 cm2/s as the velocity changed from 3 cm/s to 12 cm/s. A coefficient b that characterized Kx fluctuated at 1.5 when wave heights were between 20 mm and 70 mm. Under ice, the slick didn’t move until the velocity exceeded 6 cm/s and Kx increased from 2.69 cm2/s to 5.64 cm2/s as the velocity changed from 6 cm/s to 12 cm/s.b remained 0.4 when wave heights were between 20 mm and 60 mm. The model performed very well in predicting the slick’s position and length during the gravitation-inertia phase for the two situations when relevant dispersion coefficients were input.

Yearly Impact:

View 38232

Download 10988 Citation 0 Refrence 8880
Author(s): 

HUSSAIN S.T. | SIDDIQA A.

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    2 (30)
  • Pages: 

    351-362
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    455
  • Views: 

    39959
  • Downloads: 

    23027
Abstract: 

Pure titanate nanotubes and titanate nanotubes doped with iron (III) and chromium (III) were fabricated by the hydrothermal treatment in methanol and sodium hydroxide mixture. The fabricated nano tubes have high surface area, high aspect ratio, consisted of very good surface morphology and high metals dispersion. The morphology, crysralline phase, composition were characterized by powdered X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Barrett-Joyner-Halenda methods and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that nanotubes possess anatase phase and are composed up of 8-12 nm in diameter and 360-400 nm in length. The band gap of the titanium dioxide nanotubes was determined using transformed diffuse reflectance spectroscopy according to the Kubelka-Munk theory, showed pronounced band gap decrease on doped titanium dioxide nanotubes.The photocatalytic activity of doped nanotubes were evaluated in terms of degradation of phenol and photoreduction of carbon dioxide into methanol and ethanol under Ultra violet and Infra red irradiation. It was found that with iron (III) and chromium (III) doped titanium dioxide nanotubes exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than undoped titanate nanotubes.

Yearly Impact:

View 39959

Download 23027 Citation 455 Refrence 6216
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    2 (30)
  • Pages: 

    363-372
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    31382
  • Downloads: 

    15205
Abstract: 

Pit latrines are the most frequently used sanitation systems in developing countries because of weak infrastructure and poor economic wealth. A modified ventilated improved pit latrine, with a biological filter beneath is proposed to stabilize and to remove the bulk of the nitrogen from the liquid phase. Although the hydraulic loading rate in the proposed biological filter system was calculated to be ca 36 L/m2/d, significantly lower than the rates that are typical applied in standard rate biological filters (in the range of 1000 – 4000 L/m2/d) used to treat domestic wastewater; the total Kjeldahl nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand concentrations are significantly higher in faecal sludge, namely 3- 5 g/L and 20- 50 g/L, respectively compared to ca 60 mg/L and 500 mg/L in standard rate biological filters. The biological filter was operated at nitrogen loading rates of 72, 145, 290 and 435 g/m2/d, respectively, until stable state conditions were obtained. The biological filter showed effective nitrogen removal between 72 and 434 g/m2/d and the best total nitrogen removal was obtained at 145 g/m2/d, namely 92%. These results suggest that it should be possible to remove nitrogen effectively using a biological filter beneath a modified ventilated improved pit latrine.

Yearly Impact:

View 31382

Download 15205 Citation 0 Refrence 5328
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    2 (30)
  • Pages: 

    373-380
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    34043
  • Downloads: 

    18392
Abstract: 

Dust storms are strongly and negatively associated with the annual cycle of rainfall and coincide with the west and southwesterly winds in west and south west of Iran. Accuracy assessment of particulate matter products of moderate resolution image spectroradiometer was studied in this research. Moderate resolution image spectroradiometer products consist of aerosol optical thickness, its corresponding image red, green and blue and moderate resolution image spectroradiometer/ terra calibrated radiances 5 minutes L1B swath 1 km, which shows the environmental information at terrestrial, atmospheric and ocean phenomenology. Daily aerosol optical thickness data retrieved from moderate resolution image spectroradiometer from May 2009 to May 2010 were compared with the amount of particulate matter measured at ground in Sanandaj, Iran, using non-linear correlation coefficient.Results showed that the moderate resolution image spectroradiometer image/terra calibrated radiances 5 minutes L1B swath 1 km is able to detect dust storms distribution and their blowing direction over study area clearly. The air quality conditions obtained in with dust storm period were unhealthy and correlation coefficients between moderate resolution image spectroradiometer aerosol optical thickness and particulate matter concentration in this period were higher than without dust storm period. The moderate resolution image spectroradiometer aerosol optical thickness values lower than 0.1 were acquired uncertainty level. Comparison of moderate resolution image spectroradiometer images/ terra calibrated radiances 5 minutes L1B swath 1 km and image red, green and blue showed that moderate resolution image spectroradiometer has limitation in retrieval of aerosol optical thickness from the dust storm with high concentration of particulate matter. This study reveals that the algorithm which is applied to refine the aerosol optical thickness is not able to recognize the amount of particulate matter in low and very high concentrations sensitively. No study has previously been conducted to investigate the accuracy of the moderate resolution image spectroradiometer particulate matter products.

Yearly Impact:

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Download 18392 Citation 0 Refrence 5328
Author(s): 

LEE E. | LEE H. | KIM Y.K. | SOHN K. | LEE K.

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    2 (30)
  • Pages: 

    381-388
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    455
  • Views: 

    39510
  • Downloads: 

    39565
Abstract: 

It is known that hydrogen peroxide interferes with chemical oxygen demand analysis by consuming oxidation agents such as potassium dichromate, thus leading to overestimation of the chemical oxygen demand measurements. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of hydrogen peroxide interference and to determine true chemical oxygen demand values on interpreting treatment performance during ozone-based advanced oxidation of livestock wastewater in which hydrogen peroxide concentration and chemical oxygen demand values are dynamically changing. According to the chemical oxygen demand monitoring data, chemical oxygen demand values were always higher than the initial chemical oxygen demand load when hydrogen peroxide was involved and the treatment performance with ozone alone or ozone/ultraviolet was better than with coupled hydrogen peroxide. The extent of overestimation was proportional to the remaining hydrogen peroxide concentration and the average overestimation ratio in livestock wastewater was in the range of 0.50~0.58 mg per 1 mg of hydrogen peroxide, depending upon the quality of the wastewater treated. True chemical oxygen demand values were estimated by correlating the extent of overestimation with the remaining hydrogen peroxide concentration during treatment. The extent of overestimation decreased to zero gradually as the amount of hydrogen peroxide also approached zero as oxidation proceeded. The corrected chemical oxygen demand values indicated underlying tendency of oxidation, which could not be seen in the original chemical oxygen demand monitoring data. Application of ozone/hydrogen peroxide was more efficient for reducing chemical oxygen demand than ozone alone, as was ozone/hydrogen peroxide/ultraviolet compared to ozone/ultraviolet. When coupled with ozone, ultraviolet irradiation was more efficient than hydrogen peroxide for decreasing chemical oxygen demand during treatment of livestock wastewater.

Yearly Impact:

View 39510

Download 39565 Citation 455 Refrence 6216
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    2 (30)
  • Pages: 

    389-400
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    38863
  • Downloads: 

    21162
Abstract: 

One of the environmental concerns in recent decades is the prevalence of different pollutants in soil.Hence, the importance of remediation has led to the development of various methods to remediate polluted soil. Among these methods, soil washing has gained significant attention to treat polluted soils. In this paper, the response surface methodology was applied in order to determine the optimal conditions for total petroleum hydrocarbon remediation using nonionic surfactant Brij 35 in soil environment. The effect of different factors in soil washing process including surfactant solution concentration and volume, washing time, age of pollution and frequency of washing are evaluated.The predicted values for total petroleum hydrocarbon remediation efficiency by the response functions are in a very close agreement with experimental data (R-2=98.75%). The second order model was developed as experimented response and optimal conditions were obtained by analyzing the contour and surface plots and also by solving the regression equation using LINGO 9.0 software. The optimal concentrations (8 g/L), volume of surfactant solution (500 mL), washing time (75 min), age of pollution (29 days) and frequency of washing (three times) are determined. In this optimal condition, the removal efficiency has been observed to be 93.54% which conforms to the results of process optimization using response surface methodology. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the response surface methodology is a suitable approach to determine the optimal conditions of soil washing to remediate organic hydrophobic pollutants using the nonionic surfactant Brij 35 from the soil.

Yearly Impact:

View 38863

Download 21162 Citation 0 Refrence 7104
Author(s): 

ASHRAF M.A. | MAAH M.J. | YUSOFF I.

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    2 (30)
  • Pages: 

    401-416
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    40933
  • Downloads: 

    57432
Abstract: 

The degree of contamination by heavy metals (arsenic, copper, lead, tin and zinc) in soil and transfer to plants has been studied. Specimens of plant species from five locations in an area of 10 x 10 m were sampled with their corresponding soils. Thirty six plant species including two shallow water aquatic plants were identified. Soil and plant specimens were analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. It was found that metal concentration in soil was highly variable while concentration of metals in plants directly depends on the concentration of metals it was rooted. Roots showed highest metal concentration followed by leaves, shoots and flowers. Bioconcentraion factor and translocation factor were calculated, representing Cyperus rotundus L. as a potential tin-hyperaccumulator plant, previously not reported in literature. Plant Species Imperata cylindrica, Lycopodium cernuum, Melastoma malabathricum, Mimosa pudica Linn, Nelumbo nucifera, Phragmites australis L., Pteris vittata L. and Salvinia molesta, were metal accumulator while Acacia podalyriaefolia G. Don, Bulb Vanisium, Dillenia reticulate King, Eugenia reinwardtiana, Evodia roxburghiania Hk. f. clarke, Gleichenia linearis, Grewia erythrocarpa Ridl., Manihot esculenta Crantz, Paspalum conjugatum Berguis, Passiflora suberosa, Saccharum officinarum, Stenochlaena palustris (Burm.) Bedd. and Vitis trifolia Linn. were tolerated plant species. All other studied plants were excluders. Identified plant species could be useful for revegetation and erosion control in metals contaminated ex-mining sites. Morphological changes such as reduction in size, change in color and deshaping have also been observed in plant species with high metal values.

Yearly Impact:

View 40933

Download 57432 Citation 0 Refrence 9768
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    2 (30)
  • Pages: 

    417-424
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    29916
  • Downloads: 

    24116
Abstract: 

In this research, a novel laboratory scale anaerobic/upflow sludge blanket filtration combined bioreactor was designed and operated to improve the efficiency of the upflow sludge blanket filtration process for the simultaneous removal of phosphorus and nitrogen from wastewater. The anaerobic/upflow sludge blanket filtration technique was developed by adding an anaerobic reactor to its influent and operated by varying the main process parameters in order to gain the optimum conditions. The results showed that biological removal efficiency of nitrogen and preservation of sludge blanket strongly depend on wastewater characteristics, hydraulic retention time, sludge age and process controlling parameters. The combined bioreactor performed a total nitrogen removal efficiency of 96.6% with the sludge age of 25 days, total hydraulic retention time of 24 h and optimum “chemical oxygen demand/nitrogen/phosphorus” ratio of 100/ 5/1. This ratio also improved the compaction quality of sludge blanket in the upflow sludge blanket filtration clarifier.The average specific nitrification and denitrification rates occurred during the process can be expressed as 4.43 mg NOx- N produced/g VSS. d and 5.50 mg NOx-N removed/g VSS. d at the optimum ratio, respectively. To avoid sludge rising due to denitrification process, the optimum total hydraulic retention time of 16 to 24 h was achieved based on the effluent quality. This study suggested that the anaerobic/upflow sludge blanket filtration bioreactor at the optimum operational conditions can be an effective process for removal of nutrients from municipal wastewater.

Yearly Impact:

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Download 24116 Citation 0 Refrence 5772
Author(s): 

VYAS T.K. | DAVE P.D.

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    2 (30)
  • Pages: 

    425-432
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    455
  • Views: 

    33731
  • Downloads: 

    22014
Abstract: 

Nocardia otitidiscaviarum microbial type cultural collection 6471 isolated from oil contaminated Alang India seawater was examined for production of surface active compound. Isolate shows halos and α-heamolysis on cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and blood agar respectively indicating the production of biosurfactant.Biosurfactant was extracted by precipitation and was partially purified. Partially purified product was characterized by thin layer chromatography and Infra-red spectroscopy and was identified as glycolipid. Sugar present in glycolipid was rhamnose and hence, biosurfactant was quantified as rhamnose equivalent. Role of cell-surface hydrophobicity and emulsification activity in correlation with biosurfactant production was examined. Correlation between biosurfactant production, growth and crude oil degradation was also examined and showed positive correlation at significant level 0.001 and 0.01 respectively. Thus, this is a first report on a marine strain of Nocardia otitidiscaviarum microbial type culture collection 6471, which can be a potential candidate for restoration of oil contaminated marine environment.

Yearly Impact:

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Download 22014 Citation 455 Refrence 7104
Author(s): 

AKTER A. | ALI M.H.

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2011
  • Volume: 

    8
  • Issue: 

    2 (30)
  • Pages: 

    433-443
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    37905
  • Downloads: 

    27563
Abstract: 

Arsenic contamination occurs in groundwater of Bangladesh mainly from the alluvial and deltaic sediments.Arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh was first detected more than a decade ago and the ‘shallow tubewells’ were reported as the main source of arsenic contaminated water. From the nutritional and metabolic points of view, arsenic is likely to adversely affect human health and nutrition. Up to now, several studies have been carried out on this context; however, inadequate knowledge on arsenic sources, mobilization and transport still remains as a constraint due to lack of data, information and technological advances. Thus, a review study has been undertaken on the sources of arsenic, its causes, mobilization, transport, effects on human health, arsenic test procedures and removal methods, in the context of groundwater contamination in Bangladesh, and finally sustainable remedial measures of arsenic have been proposed. This study suggests that laboratory facilities for testing of arsenic and effects of enhanced groundwater pumping, phosphate fertilizer etc., need to be updated, expanded and studied. This review work is significant to further knowledge improvement, as the topic is general and worldwide. It can be concluded that the integration of the proposed remedial measures with the national geographic information system interface database relating to arsenic for analysis, production of hazard maps, and dissemination on television show for the planners, engineers, managers, field supervisors and affected people, can reach at the sustainable solution for mitigating arsenic and associated problems successfully in Bangladesh.

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Download 27563 Citation 0 Refrence 12432