The aim of this study is investigation of the relationship between fear of success (FOS) and achievement motivation among successful and unsuccessful athletes in Azarbaijan -Gharbi Province. The subjects of study were 200 athletes, divided into two groups of men and women: 100 successful athletes, successful in gaining medals in interior and international official competitions and 100 unsuccessful athletes, unsuccessful in gaining medals. Instruments of the study were Gill and Deter's sport (1998) orientation scale (SOQ) and Zukerman's fear of success questionnaire (FOSS, 1976). For analyzing data, Pearsoon Correlation and t-test (a=.05) were used. The results showed that there is a significant relationship between FOS and achievement motivation in both of the successful (p=0.001, r=-0.57) and unsuccessful athlets (P=0.001, r=-0.52). Also it was found that in the case of achievement motivation (P=0.001, t=20.13) and FOS (P=0.001, t=15.02) there is a significance difference between the two groups. No significant difference was found between male and female athletes for FOS (P=0.883, t=0.147). Generally, regular physical activity together with decreased fear of success, leads to higher achievement improvement.