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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID1
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    23
  • Issue: 

    4
  • Start Page: 

    1
  • End Page: 

    17
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    30
  • Downloads: 

    32
Abstract: 

Introduction: Major depressive disorder is one of the most common psychiatric disorders with cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms. The disorder is associated with abnormalities in the cortical activity of the brain. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the cortical coherence patterns of patients with major depressive disorder. Methods: Thirty-six patients with a major depressive disorder based on the criteria specified in DSM-5 were selected by purposive sampling procedure based on including and excluding criteria. Participants were assigned randomly to one of the research groups (recipient of direct transcranial electrical stimulation, receiving false stimulant (sham), and waiting list group). All participants completed the Beck depression inventory, and their brain activity was recorded using a 19-channel EEG. Results: The data showed that tDCS did not significantly affect interhemispheric coherence changes. However, the use of tDCS, compared with the sham group, caused a significant reduction in interhemispheric coherence, especially in the slow cortical bands (theta and alpha) in all three anterior, central and posterior regions of the brain, as it has become more impressive in the central regions. Conclusion: The present study’ s findings reveal that transcranial stimulation of the brain reduces the pattern of abnormal brain activity, especially in the coherence of central regions. These changes reduce the abnormal energy loss in the brain and improve the pattern of information processing in patients.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    23
  • Issue: 

    4
  • Start Page: 

    103
  • End Page: 

    116
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    44
  • Downloads: 

    34
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: Research has shown that students face situations in which they cannot meet their needs and need the help of others to do their exercises. The present study aimed to investigate the factors affecting students' help-seeking at both the student and parent levels. Methods: In this correlation study, 400 female the first round of high school students in the seventh and eighth grades in the academic year 2019-2020 were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling from 16 classes in different schools in Yazd. Students completed the Rya and Pintrich Help-Seeking Questionnaire and the Student and Parental Achievement Goal Orientation Questionnaire Midgley et al. In the present study, two-level analyses (student and parents) and HLM software were used to analyze the data. Results: Findings from multilevel analysis and according to the unconditional model revealed that27% of the variance of help-seeking was explained by family-level factors and 73% by student-level factors, which indicates sufficient variability of the dependent variable between different levels and application, but with the entry of student and family level predictors and examining their relationship with the dependent variable, the rate of explanation in the complete model for student level variables to 6% and the family level to 18% changed. At the student level, the variables of mastery and performance-avoidance goal orientation significantly predicted help-seeking (P<0. 001). Parents’ mastery and performance goal orientation at the family level was a significant predictor for help-seeking at this level (P<0. 001). Conclusion: Due to the positive significance of parental mastery goal orientation, it is appropriate to provide conditions in families for students to emphasize mastery goal orientation and seek help in the face of complex learning tasks.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    23
  • Issue: 

    4
  • Start Page: 

    117
  • End Page: 

    129
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    41
  • Downloads: 

    34
Abstract: 

Introduction: One of the symptoms of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is behavioral inflexibility, which causes poor adaptation to environmental demands and behavioral problems. The present study investigated, the role of executive functions in predicting the behavioral flexibility of young children with ASD. Methods: In this correlational study, the convenience sampling method selected 45 children aged 16 to 36 months. Data were collected using the behavior rating inventory of executive functioning-preschool version (BRIEF-P) and the behavior flexibility rating scale-revised (BFRS-R). Pearson correlation coefficient and simultaneous regression were used to analyze the data using SPSS-24 software. Results: The results of Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis revealed that the behavioral flexibility of children with inhibition (P<0. 05, r=0. 37), shifting (P<0. 01, r=0. 45), emotional control (P<0. 01, r=0. 49), planning/organizing (P<0. 05, r=0. 34), inhibitory self-control (P<0. 01, r=0. 44), cognitive flexibility (P<0. 01, r=0. 55), metacognition (P<0. 05, r=0. 30), and total score of executive functions (P<0. 01, r=0. 46) is correlated. Working memory had no significant relationship with young children's behavioral flexibility (P>05, r=0. 23). The overall score of young children executive functions predicts 18%, 15%, and 21% of the variance, respectively, of the behavioral flexibility of young children in relation to objects, the environment, and the overall score of behavioral flexibility. Executive functions did not have the ability to significantly predict behavioral flexibility toward individuals. Conclusion: The present study concluded that executive dysfunction is associated with behavioral flexibility in young children with ASD. It is suggested that in future studies, the design of early interventions to improve executive functions with the aim of increasing the flexibility of children with ASD be considered.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    23
  • Issue: 

    4
  • Start Page: 

    130
  • End Page: 

    144
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    34
  • Downloads: 

    24
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: Different cognitive models representing the brain’ s cognitive processes in areas such as psychology and artificial intelligence have been proposed that have many uses. Given the objectives of these models, the most important of which is to study the characteristics of the brain in the process of performing excellent cognitive functions, patient rehabilitation, and intelligent machines, it is necessary to review and compare the proposed models carefully. Methods: In this study, by collecting library data, information about three cognitive models, namely the cognitive models of semantic networks, ACT-R, and free energy of the brain, were examined. Results: The semantic network model has the ability to produce semantic (declarative) knowledge. The ACT-R model, which is one of the most practical human cognitive models, provides the possibility of producing declarative and procedural knowledge (skills). Models of semantic networks and free energy require programming, while the ACT-R model is presented in the form of application software. The free energy model of the brain works similarly to human inferences by generating a variety of declarative, procedural, and conditional knowledge by updating sensory concepts and perceptions received, as well as previous hypotheses based on Bayesian probabilistic inferences, and by minimizing the free energy of the brain. Conclusion: Despite the complexity of the free energy model, due to its more significant comprehensiveness, in describing cognitive functions such as perception, learning, attention, decision making, and analysis of human cognitive diseases could give better and broader results.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    23
  • Issue: 

    4
  • Start Page: 

    145
  • End Page: 

    158
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    27
  • Downloads: 

    33
Abstract: 

Introduction: The present study aimed to evaluate fans’ brain responses to elite athletes’ social responsibility activities and reflect on their socially supportive behaviors. Methods: The fans’ brain responses to the social responsibility activities by an elite athlete were explored utilizing the neuromarketing approach and a quasi-experimental research design. Results: The electroencephalographic (EEG) findings from a total number of 29 participants in the study revealed that the social responsibility of the elite athlete compared with an infamous counterpart could induce different brain responses in the fans. In addition, elite athlete's social responsibility activities could increase tendency for socially supportive behaviors by the participants (P=0. 001). The same hypothesis in terms of dividing the participants into male and female groups was also significant only in the females (P=0. 001). Conclusion: The present results study can have implications for organizations and marketers seeking to use athletes in their social marketing and business advertising. Moreover, the findings related to gender differences demand serious attention from sports managers and marketers.

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Writer: 

Karimzadeh Omid

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    23
  • Issue: 

    4
  • Start Page: 

    159
  • End Page: 

    169
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    53
  • Downloads: 

    34
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: This paper tries to explicate a theory to understand the aesthetic properties of pictures based on recent research in philosophy of mind and cognitive science. Methods: From a philosophical point of view, such a theory could be used for explaining the artistic, semantic, or sociological aspects of the pictures. However, this paper is focused on showing how this theory is used for explaining aesthetic experience in the case of pictures. Results: After introducing some preliminary conceptions for this debate, the concept of aesthetic attention is explained, and then some rival views for explaining the pictorial perception are assessed and undermined. Then, as one of the essential features of the aesthetic experience, the lack of interest is explicated in terms of the defended theory of pictorial perception. They thoroughly distinguished between two different objects, which are represented in picture perception, viz a two-dimensional surface picture and a three-dimensional depicted object. The study accounts for the relation between these two objects and determines their role in aesthetic experience. Conclusion: The conclusion is advice, which is based on the defended theory, for non-specialist individuals in the art to put them in a position to understand the aesthetic features of non-realistic pictures as well as possible.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    23
  • Issue: 

    4
  • Start Page: 

    18
  • End Page: 

    32
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    51
  • Downloads: 

    44
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: Several studies have examined visual illusion's effect on motor performance and the cognitive task of estimating target size in normal individuals. However, research that has used this approach on the cognitive function of children with autism and the underlying neurological mechanisms has been neglected. According to the neurological approach, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of Ebbinghaus visual illusion on changes in perception of target size and brain waves in children with autism. Methods: The research was semi-experimental with pre-test and post-test design with three groups (two experimental groups and one control group). The study's statistical population included all right-handed children with autism aged eight-ten years old in Mashhad. Thirty-three children with autism were selected by the available sampling method and randomly divided into three groups of 11 people. The research instruments included visual illusion targets for training and an EEG device for recording brain waves. Analysis of covariance and analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to analyze the data. Results: Visual illusion significantly affect changes in target size and alpha brain waves so that the larger perceived group was more associated with alpha wave reduction. Conclusion: Due to the identification of the neural mechanism underlying visual illusion, it can be used as an effective training method in perceptual problems in children with autism.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    23
  • Issue: 

    4
  • Start Page: 

    33
  • End Page: 

    47
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    33
  • Downloads: 

    50
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: Time perception is a category stimulating intelligent human curiosity for scientific manipulation and cognition. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of mindfulness on the time perception and brain waves using the temporal bio-section task. Methods: This research was carried out using a randomized controlled clinical trial, which was lasted from autumn 2018 to 2020. One hundred forty-three students of the Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University participated voluntarily in the experiments. In a structured clinical interview for the DSM-5 (SCID-5-CV) psychiatric disorder, thirty-one undergraduate students were assessed for mental health and brain disease. Their mindfulness ability was moderate based on the Freiburg questionnaire, and they were assigned randomly into experimental and control groups, containing sixteen and fifteen participants, respectively. The experimental and control groups were played a 13-minute mindfulness audio file and a neutral file. 19-channel EEG signals during the temporal bio-section task were recorded from participants, while the power of brain waves in different frequency bands in channels C3, C4, Cz, F3, F4, Fz, and Pz was calculated before and after presenting the independent variable in two groups. Results: The results showed an increase in beta, delta, and theta power in different channels. Alpha power changes were obtained inconsistently. The gamma power and theta to beta ratio were significantly reduced in the experimental group. Behavioral findings showed an increase in the number of long responses (Percentage long response) and a decrease in the bio section point (Bisection point). Conclusion: The results revealed that the variable of mindfulness is influential in the process of cognitive processing of time perception and causes overestimation in time perception by changing the above electrophysiological measures, which indicate a decrease in arousal, increased internal concentration, increased motor inhibition, and increased physical awareness and emotional regulation.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    23
  • Issue: 

    4
  • Start Page: 

    48
  • End Page: 

    60
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    52
  • Downloads: 

    62
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: Academic self-efficacy and vitality play an essential role in coping with challenging academic situations in the school environment. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of an educational package based on the cognitive components of critical thinking, problem-solving, and metacognition on students' self-efficacy and academic vitality. Methods: The present study was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest design with a control group. The statistical population included all first-grade female students in the secondary school of Zanjan in the academic year of 2019-2020, from which 40 students were selected by the multistage cluster sampling method. The research instruments included the Jenks and Morgan Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, the Dehghanizadeh and Hossein Chari Academic Vitality Questionnaire, and the Psychological Thinking, Problem Solving, and Metacognition Psychological Package. The final form of the educating package was developed in 17 sessions of 90 minutes in two sessions per week for the experimental group students, but no education was considered for the control group. Data were analyzed using the analysis of covariance in SPSS-24 software. Results: The results of covariance analysis showed that the Psychological Thinking, Problem Solving, and Metacognition Package significantly affects students' self-efficacy and academic vitality (P<0. 05). So that, the mean scores of self-efficacy and academic vitality of the experimental group compared to the control group increased significantly. Conclusion: Considering this study’ s results and the effect of the educational package of cognitive components on students' self-efficacy and academic vitality, it is suggested that in order to increase this two essential variables in students, considere both students and school counselors and parents.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    23
  • Issue: 

    4
  • Start Page: 

    61
  • End Page: 

    71
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    77
  • Downloads: 

    88
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: One of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic has been the increase of anxiety levels caused by it. In this regard, identifying and targeting its predictors can effectively manage Coronavirus anxiety. Therefore, the present study aimed to predict coronavirus anxiety based on resilience, cognitive emotion regulation, and cyberchondria. Methods: In a correlational study design, 409 people were selected from 18 to 60 years old Isfahan’ s residents using the convenience sampling method through social networks. Data were collected using Lee’ s Coronavirus Anxiety Scale, Connor and Davidson's Resilience Scale, Garnefski and Kraaij’ s Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and McElroy et al. ’ s Cyberchondria Severity Scale. Results: Based on the obtained results, the variables of resilience, self-blame, and acceptance sub-scales of cognitive emotion regulation and cyberchondria variables predicted 15. 5% of the variance of coronavirus anxiety (P<0. 05). Conclusion: The present study's findings concluded that resilience, some cognitive emotion regulation strategies such as self-blame and acceptance, as well as cyberchondria are significantly associated with coronavirus anxiety and are able to predict it. So, causal results can be achieved by designing interventional research such as the effect of resilience training, emotion regulation, and cyberchondria management on coronavirus anxiety. Then these results can be used to manage coronavirus anxiety in the form of public education in the community.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    23
  • Issue: 

    4
  • Start Page: 

    72
  • End Page: 

    85
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    43
  • Downloads: 

    34
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: Falling is one of the leading causes of unwanted injuries and deaths in the elderly. Most falls occur due to the interaction between multiple physical and cognitive risk factors. Meanwhile, physical activity has been accepted as a beneficial factor in preventing falls in the elderly. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of a Pilates and Square-stepping training on cognitive and physical functions related to falling and fear of falling in older women. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted on a number of 20 older women with an age range of 60 to 70 years. Participants were selected through convenience sampling and were randomly assigned to Pilates (n=10) and Square-stepping (n=10) groups. Both groups did exercises for 12 weeks and participated in a pre-test and post-test. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, Wechsler Memory Test, Stork Test, Berg Balance Test, and the Falls Efficacy International Scale were used to measure executive functions, memory quotient, static balance, dynamic balance, and fear of falling, respectively. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to analyze the collected data. Results: Results revealed the main effect of time in categories achieved, perseverative errors, memory quotient, static balance, dynamic balance, and fear of falling were significant, and the mean scores of perseverative errors and fear of falling decreased in the post-test compared with the pre-test. In addition, the mean scores of categories achieved, memory quotient, static balance, and dynamic balance, were higher in the post-test relative to the pre-test. In addition, results indicated no significant main effect of group and the interaction of group and time. Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that both Pilates and Square-stepping training can be an appropriate intervention to improve cognitive functions and physical functions related to falling and decrease fear of falling in older women.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    23
  • Issue: 

    4
  • Start Page: 

    86
  • End Page: 

    102
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    41
  • Downloads: 

    95
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: The family is the first social environment that is effective in the emotional development of individuals. The present study aimed to develop a structural model for predicting maladaptive schemas based on parenting style with the mediate role of attachment styles and students' moods. Methods: The research method was descriptive correlational and structural equation modeling. The statistical population of this study included all students of the Islamic Azad University, Karaj branch in the second semester of the academic year 2020-2021. A sample of 380 people was selected through non-the probabilistic and online sampling method. Data were collected using the Young Early Maladaptive Schemas Questionnaire, Buri Parental Authority Questionnaire, Hazan and Shaver Adult Attachment Questionnaire, and CloningerTemperament and Character Scale were used. Pearson correlation coefficient, structural equation model in SPSS-21 software and AMOS-24 software was used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed that the tested model has a good fit. The results also showed that authoritarian parenting style with the mediated role of secure attachment style and authoritarian and negligent parenting styles with the mediated role of avoidant attachment style have an indirect effect on the Early Maladaptive Schemas. Authoritarian Parenting Style with the mediated role of self-direction, cooperation and self-reliance and authoritarian parenting style with the mediated role of perseverance, self-direction and cooperation, and Permissive Parenting Style with the mediated role of harm avoidance have a causal and indirect effect on the students' Early Maladaptive Schemas (P<0. 01). Conclusion: Considering the relationship between parenting styles and temperament with the maladaptive schemas, the present study results can be used to explain the factors affecting maladaptive schemas and as a suitable model for designing comprehensive programs to prevent early maladaptive schemas.

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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID