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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID1
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
Writer: 

Karimzadeh Omid

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    24
  • Issue: 

    1
  • Start Page: 

    1
  • End Page: 

    11
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    52
  • Downloads: 

    44
Abstract: 

Introduction: Since the methods of scanning brains have been fundamentally developed in recent years through the fMRI technology, some researchers in the fields of cognitive science and neuroscience have found the opportunity to investigate people's brains by this new method when some moral, aesthetic, or spiritual experiences are taking place for those people. Methods: One of the most important experiments of this kind is the one Joshua Greene et al. performed in the department of psychology at Harvard University. Results: First of all, they introduced a hypothesis called Dual-Process Hypothesis and then set up an experiment to confirm this hypothesis. In the next step, they derived some normative conclusions about the relevance of consequentialism and deontology in normative moral philosophy. According to this conclusion, moral consequentialist intuitions should be considered relevant in making normative ethical judgments because they are caused by the activity of cognitive parts of the brain. In contrast, moral deontological intuitions (and the correspondent deontological judgments) should be ignored since the activity of emotional parts causes them. Greene et al. also claimed that they had derived a moral normative conclusion from some purely descriptive assumptions. Conclusion: In this paper, after describing the experiment and its methodology, four different claims derived distinguished from Greene's experiment and showed that just one of them can be confirmed. The argument called for the insignificance of Greene's experiment as an "order-changing argument". The paper ends with the conclusion that Greene's neuroscientific experiment lacks any normative importance for moral theories.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    24
  • Issue: 

    1
  • Start Page: 

    115
  • End Page: 

    132
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    106
  • Downloads: 

    96
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: In recent years, there has been an increasing number of studies regarding the neurological soft signs (NSS) in Attention deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, there were a few studies regarding the effects of current therapeutic methods on NSS in children with ADHD in Iran. This study aimed to investigate and compare the effects of drug therapy and attentional plays on these signs. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test, and a control group, in which 100 pupils with a diagnosis of ADHD participated in the academic year of 2016-2017. Following the administration of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory (CNI) and Conners scale, and according to pupils’ scores and their cut-off point, the subjects were divided into two groups: low scores and high scores of NSS signs. Each group was randomly assigned into three groups (two experimental and one control), which were six groups. After introducing the interventions, the data were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA. Results: The data analysis revealed a significant difference between experimental and control groups; two interventions have reduced the signs based on the severity of NSS signs and hyperactivity. Drug therapy was more effective on severe neurological soft signs, while attentional games were more effective on low NSS. Conclusion: The results could be useful for therapists as a guide in selecting the type of therapy according to the severity of neurological soft signs.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    24
  • Issue: 

    1
  • Start Page: 

    12
  • End Page: 

    27
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    86
  • Downloads: 

    156
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention based on Piaget's cognitive approach to the mathematical performance of students with particular learning disabilities in elementary school. Methods: The research method was experimental, and a single case study design was used. The statistical population of this study is all fifth-grade elementary students with learning disabilities who were studying in regular schools in the five districts of Isfahan in the academic year 2019 to 2020. Using the purposeful sampling method, three students who met the inclusion criteria were selected and participated in the study. The research instruments were Raven the IQ test, the standard diagnostic test with KeyMath, and the fifth-grade elementary mathematical performance test. In the treatment sessions, all three subjects were observed for four sessions before the intervention, and thus, their baseline was determined. Then, a training package based on Piaget's cognitive approach was implemented individually for each participant. The intervention consisted of eight training sessions; during each session, the case was individually trained in cognition for 45 minutes, and at the end, three follow-up sessions were performed. To analyze the data, after drawing the graph and the stability and trend chamber for the graphs, the effectiveness of the independent variable on the dependent variable was evaluated by using the in situ and intra situational analysis method. Results: During the visual analysis of the data graph, the intervention was effective in all 3 cases. The percentage of non-overlapping data (PND) in both baseline and intervention positions was effective in all three cases. Based on Piaget's approach, the results showed that cognitive education significantly improves math performance in children with math learning disabilities. Conclusion: According to the research results, it is suggested that education based on Piaget's cognitive approach as an effective educational method be considered by educators and therapists of children with particular learning disabilities.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    24
  • Issue: 

    1
  • Start Page: 

    133
  • End Page: 

    146
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    85
  • Downloads: 

    87
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: Extramarital relationship is one of the most critical threats to the stability of marital relations and one of the main reasons for divorce in different cultures. Early maladaptive schemas and social support affect the quality of marital relationships and the tendency to extramarital relationships. The present study aimed to investigate the role of early maladaptive schemas and social support in predicting couples’ tendency to extramarital relationships. Methods: This study is a survey and correlation study. The statistical population of the present study was women who were referred to counseling centers in Tehran's district 6 in the second half of 2019, from which a sample of 200 people was randomly selected in a multi-stage sampling. Tendency to extramarital relationship, social support, and early maladaptive schemas questionnaires were used for data collection. Correlation and multiple regression were used to analyze the data in this research. Data were analyzed using SPSS-24. Results: The findings revealed that a linear combination of predictive variables could predict the tendency to extramarital relationship. Based on regression analysis, 24% of the variance of tendency to extramarital relationship is predictable with the predictive variables (early maladaptive schemas and social support) (P<0. 001). Conclusion: Considering the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and social support with a tendency to extramarital relationship, it is suggested that by identifying and challenging the early maladaptive schemas and increasing the amount of social support, the necessary ground be provided to increase couples' understanding and reduce the tendency to extramarital relationship.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    24
  • Issue: 

    1
  • Start Page: 

    147
  • End Page: 

    159
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    85
  • Downloads: 

    129
Abstract: 

Introduction: Due to its debilitating nature, coronary heart disease (CHD) creates some limitations in a person's life. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction on state/trait anxiety and hypertension in patients with CHD with hypertension. Methods: The research method was quasi-experimental pretest-posttest with one control and a 3-month follow-up group. Thirty patients with coronary heart disease were selected from the patients referred to Hazrat Fatemeh specialized polyclinic in Urmia in the months of September to December 2020 and were randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups. The experimental group received a mindfulness-based stress reduction program in an 8-session of 120 minutes. However, the control group did not receive this intervention during the research process. Data were collected through the State/Trait Anxiety questionnaire (Spielberger, 1970) and were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance in SPSS-24 software. Results: The results of data analysis revealed that a mindfulness-based stress reduction program has significantly influenced state/trait anxiety (P<0. 001) and hypertension (P<0. 001) and significantly reduced overt anxiety, latent anxiety, and hypertension in patients with coronary heart disease (P<0. 001). Conclusion: Considering the effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction therapy on reducing overt and covert anxiety and hypertension in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), it is suggested that the principles of this treatment be taught to counselors and psychologists in medical and hospital centers through specialized workshops.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    24
  • Issue: 

    1
  • Start Page: 

    160
  • End Page: 

    172
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    87
  • Downloads: 

    52
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: Perception of time and self-awareness and study of related mechanisms are complex and attractive components that have always aroused human curiosity. The present study examined mindfulness on time perception using an experimental group method. Methods: Thirty-one undergraduate students who were evaluated in terms of mental health and brain diseases and moderate mindfulness ability were divided into two experimental groups of 16 and 15 controls. The experimental group listened to a 13-minute mindfulness audio file session and practiced it. A neutral audio file was presented to the control group. The temporal bisection task was presented before and after implementing the independent variable, and its findings were recorded. Results: The results revealed that the experimental group had significantly lower scores in the size of the bisection point than the control group. Also, the percentage of long responses in this group increased significantly compared to the control group, which indicates an overestimation of time following the effect of mindfulness practice. This study measured, the size of the behavioral variable of reaction time, which is a behavioral indicator of improvement in the decision-making process. However, no significant difference was observed between the experimental and control groups. Conclusion: The results were analyzed based on the hypothesis that mindfulness overestimates time by reducing the level of arousal and increasing the sources of attention to internal stimuli. Accordingly, spectral evaluation and analysis of brain wave changes along with behavioral responses seem necessary.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    24
  • Issue: 

    1
  • Start Page: 

    28
  • End Page: 

    40
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    68
  • Downloads: 

    45
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: Various intervention programs have been proposed to improve the quality and accuracy of athletes' decision-making. The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of verbal instructional (VI), VI + modeling, and VI + implementation methods on female basketball players' decision-making speed and accuracy. Methods: For this purpose, 36 female basketball players present in Iranian Basketball Premier League competitions with an average age (24. 49± 1. 7) years participated in the present study and were divided into three groups (each group=12) based on the scores of the speed and accuracy decision-making pre-test. The training phase lasted for three sessions of 15 minutes. At this stage, group 1 was given only verbal instructions, group 2 was given verbal instructions with 15 slides, and group 3 was given verbal instructions with performances on the field. A retention test was taken at the end of the last training session, post-test, and after 24 hours. Results: The results of 3 (group)* 3 (test) mixed analysis of variance in each of the variables of speed and accuracy decision-making showed that the accuracy in the groups of VI + modeling and VI + implementation increased from pre-test to retention (P<0. 05) and the accuracy of VI + implementation group in post-test, and retention was higher than the VI group (P<0. 05). Although all groups showed an increase in speed in decision speed, no difference was observed between the groups (P<0. 05). Conclusion: Therefore, coaches are advised to use the implementation method instead of instructions and modeling to teach tactics.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    24
  • Issue: 

    1
  • Start Page: 

    41
  • End Page: 

    55
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    63
  • Downloads: 

    88
Abstract: 

Introduction: Mild Cognitive Impairment is one of the most common cognitive deficits in old age, including impaired working memory. The present study aims to evaluate a cognitive empowerment program using virtual reality technology to improve these people’ s visual and verbal working memory. Methods: The present study belongs to quasi-experimental designs in terms of the data collection method. In this study, the experimental design of pre-test-post-test and follow-up with the control group has been used. In this study, 30 patients with mild cognitive impairment were randomly divided into control (n=15) and experimental (n=15) groups. Subscales of digit span and symbol span were performed in three stages: pre-test, post-test, and follow-up after one month to examine working memory. The intervention included a virtual reality-based program designed for ten sessions, three sessions per week. Results: The repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant difference between the experimental and control bands in digit and symbol span. There was a significant difference between the mean digit span in the pre-test stage with the two post-test and follow-up stages, as well as the two post-test and follow-up stages. The results also indicated that a significant effect was reported on the average of the symbol span over time. The mean symbol span in the pre-test stage was significantly different from the two post-test and follow-up stages. However, no significant difference was observed between the two stages of post-test and follow-up. Conclusion: The results revealed that cognitive empowerment based on virtual reality technology could improve working memory, and the durability of the effect was observed in the follow-up one month later in the digit span.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    24
  • Issue: 

    1
  • Start Page: 

    56
  • End Page: 

    69
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    75
  • Downloads: 

    79
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: Numerous factors are influential in youth addiction that interact with each other, leadingto the beginning of consumption and then addiction. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the role of worry, rumination, and alexithymia in predicting students' substance addiction. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical correlation study, among all-male high school students in Zarand Kerman in the academic year 2019-2020, 260 people were selected based on the Morgan Georgia table by multi-stage cluster sampling method. Students completed the Pennsylvania State Survey Questionnaire worry Meyer et al. (1990), rumination Nolen-Hoeksema S, Morrow (1991), alexithymia Bagby et al. (1994), and the Farchad Addiction Trend (2006). Data were analyzed using SPSS-22 software, Pearson correlation tests, and multivariate regression analysis. Results: The results revealed the correlation between rumination with positive and significant addiction tendency (r=0. 622 and P<0. 01), worry with positive and significant addiction tendency (r=0. 597 and P<0. 01). Alexithymiawith a tendency to addiction was positive and significant (r=0. 580 and P<0. 01). Also, difficulty in recognizing emotions (P<0. 05, β = 0. 128), difficulty in describing emotions (P<0. 01, β =0. 292), thinking with external orientation (P<0. 01, β =0. 289) General worry (P<0. 01, β =0. 536), lack of worry (P<0. 01, β =-0. 173), ruminant responses (P<0. 01, β =0. 359), misleading responses, and the senses (P<0. 01, β =0. 345) predict the tendency to addiction. Conclusion: The study results emphasize the importance of cognitive components (worry and rumination) and emotional (alexithymia) in students’ tendency to addiction. Therefore, the development and expansion of prevention programs by strengthening cognitive and emotional skills to deal with addiction at the school level can be recommended as an essential solution for policymakers and implementers of health-social programs.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    24
  • Issue: 

    1
  • Start Page: 

    70
  • End Page: 

    83
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    62
  • Downloads: 

    107
Abstract: 

Introduction: Aesthetic sensitivity and intelligence have recently attracted the attention of scientists in various fields such as art, sociology, and psychology, and various theories have been proposed in this area. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between aesthetic sensitivity and intelligence in students and campare these variables based on gender and age. Methods: The method of this research was descriptive and correlational. The statistical population was all of the students in Tuyserkan, 2021 (Elementary, Junior High, and High school). Three hundred students were selected by cluster sampling and answered the aesthetic sensitivity and intelligence questionnaires by online or presence method. Data were then analyzed using the correlation method and structural equation modeling using SPSS-25 and Lisrel. Results: The results revealed that there is a significant relationship between all aesthetic sensitivity dimensions and all aesthetic intelligence components (P<0. 05). There was a statistically significant difference between girls and boys, and age groups regarding aesthetic intelligence and aesthetic sensitivity. Also, the estimated model in this research had good fit indexes (CFI=0. 92; GFI=0. 91; RMSEA=0. 011). Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, it can be concluded that the aesthetic intelligence of people has a close relationship with their aesthetic sensitivity and this close relationship exists at the level of the components of the two. Also, the sensitivity, attention, and response of male and female students at different educational levels to beautiful stimuli are different, and they should pay special attention to this issue in their educational and upbringing plans.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    24
  • Issue: 

    1
  • Start Page: 

    84
  • End Page: 

    97
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    53
  • Downloads: 

    50
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: The attention system can be divided into alerting, orienting, and executive control networks. The validation of attention measurement tools is important in psychology. The present study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Adult Attention Network test and Children Attention Network test. Methods: A total of 184 children (6-9 years old) and 184 adults (44-20 years old) were selected by multi-stage cluster random sampling method, and the attention network test was performed on them. Cronbach's alpha was used for validity analysis, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and one-way analysis of variance was used to compare groups. Analyzes were performed using SPSS-24 software. Results: Findings showed that Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the test was the total attention network of adults (0. 88), and its dimensions were alerting dimension (0. 80), orientation dimension (0. 79), and executive control dimension (0. 84). Cronbach's alpha was also obtained for the whole children's test (0. 82) and each of the subscales, including alerting (0. 70), orienting (0. 70), and executive control (0. 76). There was no significant difference in the children's attention test scores in the three dimensions of alerting, orienting, and executive control between girls and boys and men and women. There is no significant difference between the children's attention network test scores in the dimension of orienting and executive control in different age groups. Nevertheless, there is a significant difference between different age groups in alerting and total attention network test. Conclusion: The current study's findings concluded that the adult and child attention network test has acceptable validity and can be used as a tool in psychological research.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    24
  • Issue: 

    1
  • Start Page: 

    98
  • End Page: 

    114
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    93
  • Downloads: 

    96
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: Considering the decisive role of couples' attitudes and beliefs in the quality of marital relationships and the importance of timely and effective interventions and their promotion, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive therapy based on acceptance and commitment with a focus on self-compassion on deterministic thinking and positive thinking in couples. Methods: The research method was semi-experimental with pre-test, post-test design, and follow-up with the control group. The statistical population of this study consisted of all couples referring to counseling centers in Tehran in the first half of 2021. The sample size consisted of 36 people selected by the purposive sampling method and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received the interventions in an 8-weekly 90-minute group session. The research instruments included Younesi and Mirafzal deterministic thinking scale and Ingram & Wisnicki positive thinking questionnaire. Data were then analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and SPSS-25 statistical analysis software. Results: The results showed that cognitive intervention based on acceptance and commitment with a focus on self-compassion significantly reduced the deterministic thinking variable (P<0. 002) and led to a significant increase in the positive thinking variable. (P<0. 001). Follow-up results showed that the effectiveness is stable. Conclusion: The present study's findings can help to develop effective therapies in the field of couple therapy. It can also be used in premarital education workshops and couple therapy interventions.

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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID