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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID1
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    25
  • Issue: 

    4
  • Start Page: 

    1
  • End Page: 

    43
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    35
  • Downloads: 

    60
Abstract: 

The existence of a diverse range of hazards and crisis centers around the border cities represents the use of different planning approaches to resilience and reduce the damage caused by crises (both natural and abnormal) in these cities. Border cities are one of the most sensitive areas that can be vulnerable to the dangers if they are not prepared to deal with and are not properly equipped. In border cities, due to the special strategic and border position, special socio-cultural topography, special economic-political conditions, vulnerabilities and threats, special conditions in terms of risk prevail; Considering the strategic position of these areas and considering the conceptual territory, content in this research, the most important issues in the study of the border cities of Abadan and Khorramshahr in geo-strategic, geo-economics, geo-culture, physical and institutional dimensions are: border geostrategic position, heterogeneous socio-cultural structure, specific geographical and environmental conditions, environmental pollutants (dust and natural resources pollution), history of endangerment and political, ethnic and religious tensions in border cities and special economic, physical and social conditions resulting from the occurrence of the imposed war. According to the proposed cases, the scope of the present study, specifically the border cities of Abadan and Khorramshahr as the largest border cities of Khuzestan province, with an active economic field on a regional and national scale, studies the specific social and cultural context, the border-water location and the experience of the imposed war. What is needed is a revision of traditional planning approaches to urban hazards management and the use of new tools in planning (compilation of resilience scenarios). In this study, foresight and hazards management based on urban resilience scenarios are considered. Methodology: The present study is "applied-theoretical" in terms of purpose, and based on the nature and method, it is "descriptive-analytical". Research Methods according to the purpose of the research, is a combination of quantitative-survey and qualitative methods. Data collection tools and information in this research have been done by studying library-documentary sources, field surveys (survey, obtaining expert opinions) and referring to relevant organizations. The statistical population of the present study is academic experts, experts and institutional-organizational managers who have sufficient knowledge and experience in the field of urban resilience and the field of study. These experts were selected and questioned based on the method of "purposive sampling (expert samples) and chain-referral ". For structural analysis of urban resilience drives based on the ability of experts to respond and the complexity of methods, steps and conditions of Delphi technique, a total of (45) academic experts, managers and institutional-organizational experts were selected as the sample. The indicators and drivers of this research are the selected dimensions of urban resilience, including social, economic, physical-infrastructural, ecological and hazards dimensions. In this regard, urban resilience drivers were identified according to the opinion of experts and expert opinions (Delphi technique) and then, these factors were prioritized based on the degree of importance and uncertainty, and the most key factors were identified using the cross-impact balance analysis method and "micmac" software. For scenario writing and questionnaire analysis, cross-impact balance method and "ScenarioWizard" software were used that finally with the opinion of experts, favorable and compatible scenarios of resilience of the studied border cities were developed. Discussion of Results: In line with the main purpose of the present study, to extract the key drivers of resilience, the cross-impact analysis method was used to identify the impact of these drivers. According to analysis performed, among the 46 factors examined (by analyzing the direct and indirect effects and calculating the displacement coefficient of each of the variables in different conditions), (18) agents were extracted and selected as key drivers of resilience in the border cities of Abadan and Khorramshahr. For the sake of scenario compilation, based on (18) selected key drivers and effective on urban resilience, possible situations of urban resilience were formulated. In order to formulate possible situations through surveys and interviews with experts, a scenario basket was prepared for (18) key factors; based on the analysis and possible situations facing the resilience of the studied cities, a total of (54) different situations were plotted for (18) key drivers influencing resilience. Considering the size of the matrix and its dimensions with size (54 × 54), with the help of scenario software and based on the questionnaire data, combined scenarios that included all possible situations were analyzed, the output of which was "521 possible scenarios", "14 high compatibility scenarios" and "3 strong scenarios". Accordingly, three scenarios with very high scores were identified as strong (probable) scenarios in the resilience of the studied cities that among them, one scenario shows favorable conditions and the other two scenarios show critical conditions. It was also detected for believable scenarios (with high compatibility) (14 scenarios). Also (521) weak (possible) scenarios were identified that due to the large number of them, addressing this number of scenarios is not the purpose of this study. Conclusion: Findings related to the analysis of urban resilience scenarios showed that most of the scenarios are in static situations (continuation of the existing trend in resilience of Abadan and Khorramshahr border cities) and critical. Out of the total number of possible scenarios, three scenarios were identified as "strong resilience scenarios" based on the total value of the adjustment value and the total impact score index. Among the strong scenarios, one scenario has favorable situations and the other two scenarios represent critical situations. In this regard, considering the prevailing situation of Abadan and Khorramshahr urban resilience drives, the best scenario is to select the first scenario drives, otherwise, the conditions governing the second and third scenarios and the continuation of the status quo will be the scenarios governing urban resilience drives. In general, it can be said that urban resilience based on scenario writing is a systematic and future-oriented approach to managing the existing and upcoming risks and challenge by creating integration and effective interaction between the dimensions of resilience, key drivers, considering resilience priorities and taking steps based on the presentation of strategies for turning unfavorable situations into favorable, on a local scale, regional and cross-border in the border cities of Abadan and Khorramshahr can be presented.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    25
  • Issue: 

    4
  • Start Page: 

    113
  • End Page: 

    139
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    18
  • Downloads: 

    64
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: Rapid urbanization poses a significant challenge to accommodating the poor, particularly in developing countries during the urbanization. To address this issue, affordable housing has become the agenda for many governments in a bid to improve the living condition of low income households. Affordable housing usually refers to a housing that is affordable to specified eligible households whose income is not adequate to access appropriate housing in the market. However, there is evidence to show that affordable housing is not adequately supported to achieve sustainable goals. Whereas sustainability is a basis of housing affordability by less spending on energy bills, transportation and health care. This study aims to conceptually revise the factors of achieving sustainable affordable housing (SAH) with systematic approach in developing countries. The first step to achieve SAH is identifying Critical Success Factors (CSF). CSFs are those few key areas, which if available, would guarantee the success of an organization or a project and if not taken serious, might lead to failure of a project. In this regard, this study aims to conceptually revise the factors of achieving SAH with systematic approach in developing countries. Methodology: The present paper is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive AND analytical in terms of method. In the first step, the content analysis method was used to conceptualize and identify success factors. 32 documents were selected, which were selected from Science Direct, Springer, Taylor Francis and Google Scholar. The data was analysed using NVivo version 10 software package. The document analysis findings were converted to a questionnaire to identify the level of criticality of the SFs. Initially, the questionnaire was tested using a pilot survey to test the validity, fitness, and comprehensiveness of the SFs. After confirming, "success criteria for achieving sustainable housing" was added to the main questionnaire and the respondents were asked to score the criticality using a 5-point Likert scale from 1 (not important) to 5 (very important). The questionnaires were sent to all individuals who had conducted research in reputable scientific journals in the field of affordable housing or sustainable housing, provided their email was available. Of the 490 copies of the questionnaire sent, 106 copies were returned, but only 102 were considered usable based on the completeness of the questionnaire. Then The IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in carrying out the statistical analyses. In this context, one sample t-test was used to compare the average of factors, the Normalization function in order to standardize and identify the critical factors and Path Analysis in order to determine the direct and indirect effects of the indicators and also to identify the main dimension in explaining the sustainable housing model. Results and Discussion: The findings showed that from the preliminary list of 35 key sustainability indicators of affordable housing that were identified through an extensive literature review, 23 CSFs were finally highlighted. "Political will and commitment to affordable housing", "Formulation of sound housing market policies", "Adequate Budget and Supply", "Providing Housing Subsidies for Low-Income Households " and "Good Governance" are five factors that have the highest criticality according to experts in different countries. The results of this study also demonstrated that among the dimensions of sustainability, the institutional /managerial dimension, due to its direct and indirect relationship with other aspects, has generally the main priority in explaining the SAH model. Conclusion: Identifying critical success factors plays a fundamental role in the realization of sustainable affordable housing. In this way, having a comprehensive approach and systematic approach is necessary. The institutional /managerial dimension, due to strong multilateral relationship with other aspects, has the main priority in explaining the SAH model. Therefore, governments need to provide the necessary conditions for the establishment of sustainable housing governance in order to address the crisis of housing management in developing countries by focusing on the role of local governments.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    25
  • Issue: 

    4
  • Start Page: 

    141
  • End Page: 

    173
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    19
  • Downloads: 

    59
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Methodology: The study area is Amirkabir agro-industry located in the south of Khuzestan province, one of the seven companies for the development of sugarcane cultivation and ancillary industries (longitude 48. 287100, and latitude 31. 029696 degrees). The gross land area of this agro-industry is 15000 hectares and its net area is 12000 hectares which is divided into several 25-hectare plots. In this research, the images of MODIS located on Terra satellite and the images of OLI and TIRS sensors of Landsat 8 satellite were used. It is worth noting that the Landsat image for time 2 was used to evaluate the simulation results. The downscaling algorithms used in this research included STARFM, ESTARFM, and REGRESSION algorithms were applied on reflectance bands and SADFAT, Regression and Cokriging algorithms were used for thermal band downscaling. In order to conduct this research, first, various downscaling methods were applied on MODIS images to be downscaled to the images with Landsat spatial resolution. Then, using MODIS downscaled images, evapotranspiration values were calculated for different combinations of downscaled data using SEBAL method and the results were compared and evaluated with evapotranspiration obtained from Landsat images acquired at the same date as MODIS data. Results and discussion: In order to evaluate the results, the downscaled bands were visually and quantitatively compared with the corresponding bands of the Landsat image acquired on the same date. In order to compare these data quantitatively, the root mean square error (RMSE) and the coefficient of determination (R2) were used. According to the RMSEs, it can be concluded that the STARFM, ESTARFM, Regression, SADFAT and Cokriging downscaling algorithms all perform well. Among the methods applied to the reflectance bands, STARFM with the RMSE of 0. 0180 had the best performance, followed by ESTARFM with the RMSE of 0. 0186 and Regression with the RMSE of 0. 0479. Among the methods applied to thermal bands, the SADFAT algorithm with the RMSE of 0. 0224 had the best performance, followed by Cokriging with the RMSE of 0. 0234 and Regression with the RMSE of 0. 0464. It should be noted that the difference in outputs is very small, and given that the study area of this study is a homogeneous area of agricultural land cover including a single sugarcane crop. This issue can be the main reason for the close performance of downscaling methods and the high accuracy of their outputs. Moreover, according to the results obtained for evapotranspiration, ESTARFM / Regression, ESTARFM / SADFAT, STARFM / Regression and STARFM / SADFAT had the best performance with the lowest difference and the Regression / Cokriging method had the weakest performance, respectively. Conclusion: This study can be concluded as follows: All downscaling algorithms used in this research had an acceptable performance in simulating Landsat bands. Among the reflectance band-related downscaling methods, STARFM had the best performance, followed by ESTARFM and Regression, respectively. Among the thermal band-related downscaling methods, the SADFAT algorithm performed best, followed by Cokriging and Regression. The use of STARFM algorithm for reflectance bands and SADFAT algorithm for thermal bands in homogeneous areas is recommended. The difference between the different combinations of methods for estimating actual evapotranspiration is small.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    25
  • Issue: 

    4
  • Start Page: 

    175
  • End Page: 

    199
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    19
  • Downloads: 

    59
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

The basis of power and life in today's world goes back to the extent of having knowledge. Today, most of the world's orientations are towards the production and development of science and technology, and developed countries are moving from an industrial society to a society called the information society or the scientific community, and the weapon of science has become a strategic weapon in these countries. Today, scientific development is an example of the national authority of the country and a platform for development in all matters. Raising the knowledge of the society in all fields requires scientific development more than ever, and in order to achieve scientific development, the ground for the production of science must be provided. Today, the role of science production and research has gone beyond an increasing factor of well-being and has become the only way to remain effective in life and in the fast-paced world of technology and advancement. Research and production of science is one of the indisputable and basic needs of any society. The study of policies and development programs of industrialized countries shows the fact that these countries are aware of the importance and position of science and technology and have considered these two as the axis of their economic, social, political and cultural development. The Arab world or Arab countries include 22 Arabic-speaking countries (10 African countries and 12 Asian countries) with a population of 349, 870, 608 and an area of 13, 130, 695 square kilometers, a region that on the one hand, include the poorest countries in the world (Somalia and Mauritania), and on the other hand includes some of the richest oil-exporting countries in the Persian Gulf. Are social and security, such as international sanctions, internal conflicts, or many economic problems. Although the lack of continuous and sufficient financial and social support from research institutes is temporary, the main problem is the long hours of teaching and turning professors and experts to the private sector, especially in the fields of medical law, engineering and attracting financial management jobs from the private sector. All of this reduces the potential of researchers. The production of science means the departure of science from the state of imitation and translation. When scientists come up with new theories about phenomena, they are in fact producing science. (Shariatmadari, 1384: 9) Science and knowledge have always been important parts of the orders and topics of religions, ideologies, cultures and activities. In fact, today science is one of the most important components of a country's power at the international level and causes that country to be able to play a more important role in the development of the world community and have a greater impact on other countries, and thus accelerate achieving goals and objectives. (Alami, 1387) The post-independence period (1920-1970) was the initial expansion of education services in the Arab world. After independence, the policies of the Arab governments were to promote the training of the local and professional labor force, and to integrate the economy. All groups of society in the whole region and within the scope of "democratization of education" became the main feature of educational policies in the Arab countries. Research method in the present article is descriptive-analytical and is based on documentary studies and Internet resources prepared. Due to the challenges of time and limited resources, in this research, documentary studies (books, articles, dissertations, plans and published statistics, etc. ) have been conducted. Also, using the resources of Internet sites to achieve the latest achievements of studies and research and to get a brief overview of the production of science and educational topics in the Arab world. In the first step, an extensive study was conducted to identify and extract science and technology indicators. In this study, many analyzes, especially spatial analysis of science and technology indicators used by domestic and international sources, were extracted and used and examined. Factor analysis of 36 principal components was performed to evaluate the underlying structure for the collected statistical items. Prior to factor analysis, the data were "reduced" to percentile groups to create a size distortion due to the large variety of scales in each data. Table 1 shows the different types of data:-Size indicators, such as number of professors, students, researchers, production volume (in number of articles); share of global scientific production; and Gross Expenditure on Research and Development (GERD).-Proportional indicators that relate the production of science and the number of researchers to the size of the population Indicators of change, such as the growth rate of scientific production-Complex indicators based on the General Innovation Index (INSEAD), or R&D Investment Evaluation (Competitiveness Report of the World Economic Forum), as shown in Section 2 above. Their rankings are often used to supplement the lack of available data on these activities. More about this source textSource text is required for additional translation information. The research method in this article is descriptive-analytical. In short, what was done in this study was: Achieving the latest achievements of studies and researches on the subject, as well as obtaining the information needed to determine the amount of articles produced by Arabic-speaking countries in prestigious journals in 2019, documentary studies were conducted and references were made to Internet sources. After the necessary rankings, a comparison was made between the population and the amount of article production among students in these countries. Finally, the obtained data were analyzed using GIS (using Arc gis software). The results showed that First, a large population of Arabic-speaking countries are still illiterate, which is much more evident among women. It is about 2%, which indicates the very low production of these countries in scientific production in prestigious journals around the world. In the end, it should be said that the Arabic-speaking countries should sooner or later start implementing reform programs to increase the quality and efficiency of their educational institutions in order to meet the challenges in the production of science. According to the studies conducted in the present study, in which the situation of higher education in Arabic-speaking countries was examined, it was found that the amount of articles submitted by Arabic-speaking countries does not have a suitable position (ranked 31st). If we look at the global ranking of articles in Arabic-speaking countries in general, about 4 countries (about 18% of them), are among the top 50 countries, and 9 countries, (41%), are among the 51 to 100 countries. They are ranked, and 2 countries, (9%), are in the range of 101 to 150, and 7 countries (32%), are in the position of 151 to 200. On the other hand, the number of articles submitted by Arabic-speaking countries is not significant compared to other countries. Foe instance, Egypt, with the best world ranking compared to Iran, is about one third; other Arabic-speaking countries are far more and have a much lower status. According to the study of the population and the number of students in Arabic-speaking countries, it can be said that the ratio of population to students in the best case is related to Tunisia with a ratio of 34 to 1, and in countries such as Yemen, 11754 to 1, which is a very inappropriate figure.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    25
  • Issue: 

    4
  • Start Page: 

    45
  • End Page: 

    70
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    20
  • Downloads: 

    63
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Introduction: Tourism has significant implications for sustainability. Tourism can make full use of tourism resources in different regions to adjust and optimize industrial structures, expand the agricultural industrial chain, develop tourism services, promote non-agricultural employment, increase farmers' incomes and create a better economic base for construction. Thus, tourism has become a strong pillar for sustainable development in developed and emerging countries. Coastal cities can play an effective role in the development of these areas, and consequently, in the development and growth of the national economy by proper and appropriate planning and identification of capabilities in coastal tourism. Given the unemployment that exists among the various strata of these cities and the main features of job creation in tourism, which includes a wide range of forces, both in terms of education, is an issue that along with effects in this industry, cannot be ignored. Because, tourism as an intelligent and humane element and as important inputs of an urban system can have positive effects in spatial-spatial dimensions and pave the way for sustainable urban development for the studied cities. On the other hand, the lack of careful planning by city managers in the field of tourism to achieve sustainable development in these coastal cities will create problems for both tourists and current and future citizens. Considering that the coastal cities under study are among the tourist cities of the province and the country, and also have the ability to achieve sustainable tourism development, the study of the role that tourism can play in these cities in the field of sustainable development is a significant issue. Methodology: This research is an applied research in terms of nature, and in terms of data analysis method, it is a descriptive-correlational and causal-relationship that has been evaluated using field and survey methods and a questionnaire. The statistical population of the group of experts including professors and experts and the sample size was determined based on the available method of 20 people. The research tool of the questionnaire and its validity has been done formally by a group of experts who have studied in this field so far and its reliability with Cronbach's alpha test and coefficient of 0. 890 indicates the acceptable reliability of the questionnaire for research. Pls software has been used to analyze the data. Results and discussion: According to the designed model, institutional-managerial indicators have an impact on economic, social-cultural, physical and environmental indicators, and economic indicators have a direct impact on the environment and socio-cultural and physical indicators on the environment. These relationships have been examined internally and indirectly on the main variable, namely sustainable development. Finally, all five indicators studied in the study were directly evaluated on sustainable development, which showed that the managerial-institutional index with a path coefficient of 0. 803 plays the most important role in sustainable development. Then the economic index with a coefficient of 0. 776 and socio-cultural index with a coefficient of 0. 734 and physical and environmental indicators each with coefficients of 0. 665 and 0. 514, respectively, have the greatest impact on achieving sustainable tourism development. They will have a beach. It should be noted that all relationships and path coefficients, both endogenously and exogenously, have positive and directional effects and the intensity of relationships are evaluated as very high and significant. These indicators are good predictors for the sustainable development of coastal tourism. Due to environmental issues and problems due to the arrival of tourists and the resulting pollution, the environmental behavior of citizens is almost necessary. Conclusion: According to these results, the main duties of the government are to support and develop maritime activities at the technological, environmental and social levels to meet the needs of the tourist community, make full use of the region's coastal potential and diverse water resources and their basic infrastructure, as well as the establishment of maritime and river transport networks and tourism in many areas. However, tourism and economic potential have not been fully utilized. After the managerial-institutional variable, the economic index and the socio-cultural index have the highest score in the role of coastal tourism on sustainable development. After that, the impact of the physical index and finally the environmental index is in the last rank in terms of impact on sustainable development. According to the analysis of the indicators of this study, it can be said that tourism is the main engine of development for this region and accelerates its sustainable development because, economically, it has a positive effect on income growth, job opportunities and job creation. Gross income and production will increase the motivation of investors to invest in the region. Socially, it causes interaction between residents and tourism, preserving the customs and culture of the region, getting acquainted with other cultures, increasing the presence of women in society, and so on. Physically, it will provide the development of infrastructure, the development of accommodation and catering facilities, the beautification of the environment, the inclusion of recreational and beach uses in plans and planning, and so on. But from the environmental point of view, it causes adverse effects on the cleanliness and cleanliness of the beaches, a negative role on the waste disposal system and increasing pollution and destruction of ecosystems, reducing animal species and changing land uses, and reducing agricultural lands, etc. This will harm the environment of the beaches.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2022
  • Volume: 

    25
  • Issue: 

    4
  • Start Page: 

    71
  • End Page: 

    112
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    19
  • Downloads: 

    62
Abstract: 

Introduction: Examining the major challenges of tourism businesses at the local level is a cognitive function of environmental elements in a particular geographical context for which there is no repetitive pattern to measure. This issue is manifested in other ways in developing countries, including Iran; Tourism businesses emerge spontaneously, without knowledge and planning, without considering all aspects. As a result, their stability is practically lost and their success rate is reduced in the long run. In this regard, we can study the challenges of advancing tourism businesses in the villages of Sardouyeh district in Kerman province, which is due to the special geographical and climatic location of this region, and is considered as it has introduced rare and exceptional natural ecosystems in desert areas, and its tourism capacity has provided opportunities for local communities to thrive. However, businesses are created solely because of the prevailing tourism climate in the region. In practice, entrepreneurs do not have good financial support and if this situation continues, they will be exposed to widespread failure. In line with this need, the primary question that arises in this regard is; what are the main problems facing tourism entrepreneurs in the field of business development? Answering this question based on the analysis of answers will enable us to answer the question that, according to the lived experience of entrepreneurs, what are the challenges facing them? How effective are the key components? Methodology: In the fundamental theory method, an attempt was made to collect data from people who have experiences with the phenomenon in question. So, people who had no experience were left out. According to Paul King Horn, the sample population could range from 15 to 55. Therefore, our statistical population in this study is formed by 54 entrepreneurs using snowball method in major tourism routes. The purpose of this study is to provide a successful indigenous model to identify challenges affecting the status of tourism business ecosystem in Iran. The present study consists of three separate and at the same time complementary parts in order to observe the principle of integration in order to achieve a successful model. The first part of this research includes the lived experience of entrepreneurs in the field of tourism business, which was used to identify 54 entrepreneurs working in this field using the snowball method. The seven thematic codes, which were composed of the results of the components of other models of the tourism business ecosystem, were provided to the entrepreneurs, and a number of central codes were extracted according to the comments made about the problems facing their business. Complementary to this method, some other codes are extracted from the findings of other research in the form of meta-combined method and by observing the principled steps of those codes which are independent of their repetition by entrepreneurs and also with expert opinion and in accordance with local conditions, and formed a total of 31 core codes. After identifying the core codes, it was related to futures studies to identify the effective components with MicMac software. The results of this section show the impact of variables such as the seasonality of businesses following climate issues; access restrictions; existence of time-consuming bureaucracies and administrative formalities; poor knowledge of entrepreneurs about tourism jobs; misplaced imitations of the businesses of those around you; weakness in entrepreneurial culture and acceptance of innovations; weakness of educational issues and the impact of variables such as the level of legal literacy of entrepreneurs; poor support services and counseling; existing corruption and discrimination; numerous structural and managerial problems; poor organization of tourism businesses; low spirit of cooperation and participation. Results and Discussion: The first part of this research includes the lived experience of entrepreneurs in the field of tourism business, which was used to identify 54 entrepreneurs working in this field using the snowball method. The seven thematic codes, which were composed of the results of the components of other models of the tourism business ecosystem, were provided to the entrepreneurs, and a number of central codes were extracted according to the comments made about the problems facing their business. Complementary to this method, some other codes were extracted from the findings of other researche in the form of meta-combined method and by observing the principled steps of those codes which are independent of their repetition by entrepreneurs and also with expert opinion and in accordance with local conditions, and formed a total of 31 core codes. After identifying the core codes, it was related to futures studies to identify the effective components with MicMac software. The results of this section show the impact of variables such as the seasonality of businesses following climate issues; access restrictions; existence of time-consuming bureaucracies and administrative formalities; Poor knowledge of entrepreneurs about tourism jobs; misplaced imitations of the businesses of those around you; weakness in entrepreneurial culture and acceptance of innovations; weakness of educational issues and the impact of variables such as the level of legal literacy of entrepreneurs; poor support services and counseling; existing corruption and discrimination; numerous structural and managerial problems; poor organization of tourism businesses; low spirit of cooperation and participation. Conclusion: At the beginning of this report, there was a lack of consensus and shortcomings regarding the local definition of entrepreneurial businesses, as well as the lack of a comprehensive method and approach. Therefore, an attempt was made to redefine the phenomenon of indigenous entrepreneurship in the form of a phenomenological approach and then by relating the central codes to future research discussions and the structural equations of these relationships. This can help researchers in other disciplines to focus their research and methodologies in a coordinated approach to improving understanding of the subject. Also, explaining what and why entrepreneurship in this research showed that the obtained results can lead to the creation of a research realm or scope and field that is accepted by researchers and in turn can reduce the non-cumulative nature.

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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID