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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID1
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    3
  • Issue: 

    3 (11)
  • Start Page: 

    529
  • End Page: 

    537
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    212
  • Downloads: 

    104
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

In this study, 78 sheep fetuses were used for the evaluation of anatomic and histologic aspects of lens with three methods (H&E, Verhoeff's and P.A.S. staining). The results showed that the lens vesicle was formed completely by 30th day and lost its contact with the superficial ectoderm. In 40th day of fetal period, the epithelium of the posterior wall of the lens gradually started to disappear due to its development and formation of forward facing elastic fibers limiting the internal space of the vesicle. By 150th day, the density and thickness of these fibers were increasing. In addition, at this day, the capsule of the posterior surface of the lens started to form. In 50th day of fetal period the internal space of vesicle was filled with elastic fibers and the epithelium of the anterior surface became simple cuboidal. At that day, the capsule of the anterior surface of the lens gradually was formed and in 60-day fetus, it became complete. By 150th day, its thickness was increased a little. After 80th day, the convexity of the posterior part would become more than the convexity of the anterior part because of the increased growth of lens fibers.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    3
  • Issue: 

    3 (11)
  • Start Page: 

    539
  • End Page: 

    545
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    330
  • Downloads: 

    80
Abstract: 

One of the most important defense mechanisms of the bovine mammary gland is teat sphincter and it’s keratinized and stratified squamous epithelium, which extends through the teat sphincter and after every milking secrets keratin and closes the capillary canal of the teat sphincter by keratin plaque. Over secretion of keratin due to repeated stimulations of teat end such as inappropriate performance of milking machine results in hyperkeratosis and finally leads to mastitis, black spot and increase in somatic cell counts. In this study 4 herds from dairy farms around Tabriz including 860 dairy cows were studied. Two herds were milked twice a day and the other herds were milked three times a day. At the time of milking the teat ends were investigated the presence of hyperkeratosis and graded into grades one to four. The results of this study indicated that the prevalence of teat end hyperkeratosis in herds which were milked three times a day (14/1%) was significantly more than the herds which were milked twice a day(%12/3) (p<0.01). In addition, grade 2 and grade 3 hyperkeratosis was significantly more than grade 4 and also the frequency of  hyperkeratosis in Tabriz dairy farms was significantly higher than the world wide reported rates (p<0.01).

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    3
  • Issue: 

    3 (11)
  • Start Page: 

    547
  • End Page: 

    554
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    127
  • Downloads: 

    72
Abstract: 

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of consumption of different amounts of fermented milk by L.casei on serum lipid trends including total cholesterol, LDL-C, HLD-C, VLDL-C and triglyceride in the serum of rats fed 1 and 2% cholesterol enriched diet. For this purpose 49 male albino wistar rats with a body weight of 200±15 gr were randomly allocated to seven groups each containing 7 rats and adapted to new conditions during a week. Rats in the first group (control group) received commercial diet and water for 30 days, the second to fourth groups received diet enriched with 1% cholesterol and rats in the fifth to seventh groups received diet enriched with 2% cholesterol. Each rat in the fourth and seventh groups (double dose receiving treatment groups) consumed fermented milk containing 4´108 CFU bacteria per day, rats in the third and sixth groups (single dose receiving treatment groups) consumed fermented milk containing 2´108 CFU bacteria per day and in the second and fifth groups (sham group) consumed sterilized milk instead of fermented milk. According to the statistical tests, one way analysis of variance and Tukey at a level of a= 0.05, mean levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C of rats in the  double dose receiving treatment groups and single dose receiving treatment groups were significantly lower and mean level of HDL-C was significantly higher than sham group (p<0.05). In the rats fed  1% enriched cholesterol, mean levels of VLDL-C and triglyceride of rats in the  double dose receiving treatment groups were significantly lower than sham group (p<0.05). Long term daily consumption of milk fermented by L.casei improves serum lipid trends by lowering total cholesterol and LDL-C level and by increasing HDL-C level. The effectiveness of this probiotic on lipid trends is dose dependent.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    3
  • Issue: 

    3 (11)
  • Start Page: 

    555
  • End Page: 

    563
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    179
  • Downloads: 

    77
Abstract: 

Voltage-gated calcium channels play a major role in the control of cellular processes in cardiac, vascular and neuronal tissues. Verapamil, nifedipine and diltiazem are calcium channel blockers widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular ailments in humans. A number of studies have shown that calcium channel blockers have antinociception and antiinflammatory effects in a range of animal models (but not in all animal models). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of verapamil, nifedipine and diltiazem on formalin-induced pain and inflammation in mice. In this experimental study, verapamil, nifedipine and diltiazem (mg/kg) were intraperitoneally injected minutes before the injection of ml of formalin solution into the paw region. The time of licking and biting of injected paw was measured as pain response at  minute intervals for hour. The results showed that formalin induced a biphasic pain response (first phase: and second phase: minute after injection). Intraperitoneal injection of verapamil, nifedipine and diltiazem before formalin reduced the second phase (inflammatory pain) of pain response significantly (p<0.05) and only verapamil reduced the first phase (neurogenic pain) of pain response significantly (p<0.05). Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that verapamil, nifedipine and diltiazem possess antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activity probably via a decrease in calcium influx that in turn interferes with the release of neurotransmitters and other substances that promote nociception and inflammation.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    3
  • Issue: 

    3 (11)
  • Start Page: 

    565
  • End Page: 

    578
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    376
  • Downloads: 

    84
Abstract: 

Cardiovascular lesions are considered as one of the most important factors leading to mortality of rainbow trouts in different breading system. The aim of this study was to compare the extent and the intensity of occurrence of pathologic lesions in the heart and bulbus arteriosus of rainbow trouts in extensive, semi intensive and intensive cultivation systems. For this purpose, 10 fish specimens from 7 weight groups (less than 90 grams, 90 to 300 grams, 300 to 500 grams, 500 to 1000 grams, 1 to 3 kilograms, 3 to 5 kilograms and over 5 kilograms) and a total of 210 specimens were collected randomly from 3 farms in Haraz and Espiran regions and their heart and bulbus arteriosus collected. In field research, age, sex, mortality rate, stocking density, feeding type and the physical and chemical specifications of the water were also taken into consideration. Histopathological slides were prepared from the collected specimens and stained with Hematoxylen and Eosin. Histopathologically, 47 male and 73 female fish had cardiovascular injuries with 29 cases in extensive cultivation system, 41 in semi intensive and 50 in intensive systems. Edema and hyperemia in the spongy layer of the atrial and ventricular muscles, moderate to severe muscular degeneration, moderate to severe inflammation, mild to severe vascular damage, thrombus formation, necrosis and fibrosis were the most important pathologic changes observed. The severity of lesions increased with increasing age of the fish in all three cultivation systems. The extent and intensity of pathologic lesions in fish over 500 grams was completely significant (p<0.05). These changes were significant in intensive cultivation system compared to the other two system (p<0.05). There was also significant difference between male and females (p<0.05).

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    3
  • Issue: 

    3 (11)
  • Start Page: 

    579
  • End Page: 

    590
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    1724
  • Downloads: 

    111
Abstract: 

This study was conducted on 40 calves under the age of one mouth with 30 calves affected by diarrhea allocated to 3 treatment groups of 10 calves each and the control group consisting of 10 calves. The control group received neither treatment nor any injections. In the first treatment group, only antibiotics were administered without any fluid therapy. In the second treatment group, apart from antibiotic therapy of diarrhea, hypertonic saline solution (7.5%) was administered at a dose of 5 ml/kg as slow intravenous infusion alongside oral ORS solution whereas in the third treatment group isotonic saline solution (0.9%) was given intravenously according to the formula (Body weight ´ %Dehydration) alongside oral ORS solution. In all groups, clinical examination and blood sampling was undertaken at times 0, 1, 2, 8 and 24 hours following treatment. At time 0, the diarrhea had resulted in clinical and laboratory signs such as a fever, the dehydration, tachycardia, oligopnea, increased packed sell volume, hypernatremia, hyperchloremia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, increased serum creatinine and BUN values. Following treatment, fever subsided and the dehydration was corrected and this correction occurred faster in calves which had received hypertonic saline solution. Correction of sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorus and calsium imbalance occurred faster in patients which were treated by hypertonic solution. Fluid therapy with saline solutions prevented the increase in serum creatinine and BUN values. In conclusion, the administration of hypertonic saline solutions leads to much faster and more reliable clinical improvement and electrolyte imbalance correction in calves affected by diarrhea. 

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Writer: 

RASHEDI R. | KHAZALI H.

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    3
  • Issue: 

    3 (11)
  • Start Page: 

    591
  • End Page: 

    599
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    181
  • Downloads: 

    77
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Ghrelin is a peptide hormone secreted into the circulation from the stomach, but this peptide is also synthetized in a number of different body tissues including the brain and pancreas, suggesting both endocrine and paracrine effects. These include: stimulation of GH and ACTH secretion, an increase in appetite and diabetogenic effect on carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, ghrelin is the natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin and its mRNA as well as GH secretagogue receptor mRNAs are expressed in the pancreas and islet cells and regulates insulin release and glucose metabolism, but because the effect of ghrelin on insulin secretion before puberty in semiruminant animals has never been examined,   therefore the purpose of the present research was to determine the effect of ghrelin on insulin secretion before puberty in camels. In this investigation 12 camels were randomly divided into two groups. Animals in each group were fed either 50% or 100% energy content in diet for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks camels received 8 μg ghrelin/kg body weights via their jugular vein for 4 days. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of all animals before, during (30 minutes after injection of ghrelin) and after the intervention for 4 continuous days and plasma insulin concentrations determined by RIA. Data obtained were analyzed by repeated measures –ANOVA and paired t-Test. p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. The results of this experiment indicated that the injection of ghrelin significantly decreased the mean plasma concentrations of insulin in pre pubertal camels receiving 50% and 100% dietary energy and there was no significant difference between the two diets regarling this effect.

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Writer: 

FAGHANI M. | DOOSTI A.

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    3
  • Issue: 

    3 (11)
  • Start Page: 

    601
  • End Page: 

    604
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    256
  • Downloads: 

    88
Abstract: 

Ostrich (Struthio camelus) breeds have been gaining increasing significance around the world. Also, ostrich farming has been dramatically increasing in Iran. In many bird species, it is very difficult to distinguish between males and females based on an analysis of their external morphology, especially in young birds. The objective of this study was to identify and develop DNA markers that can be used for sex determination in ostrich using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. DNA was isolated from blood and feather samples of male and female ostriches (20 cases). PCR reaction was performed by a set of specific W-link primers. The results showed an amplified fragment, about 648 bp for females and no amplified PCR product for male ostriches. This method is a fast, accurate and inexpensive procedure for large scale sex typing of ostriches.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2009
  • Volume: 

    3
  • Issue: 

    3 (11)
  • Start Page: 

    605
  • End Page: 

    608
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    127
  • Downloads: 

    83
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

In the winter of 2009, a report received by our clinic indicated a 10% mortality rate in a sheep farm around Tehran and local inspection revealed that a total of 10 lambs and kids had died during one week from a herd of 100. Clinical signs consisted of local alopecia and abscesses in the limbs of the affected animals. Small mobile larvae were observed at the dermal ulcers. There was a volcanic ulcer at the end of the finger of a farm worker as well with the larvae moving out of the ulcer inside warm water. Sampling of animal feces and larvae present on the skin was carried out and Strongylus papillosus was diagnosed at the laboratory.

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