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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID1
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
اسکوپوس
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
ریسرچگیت
strs
Journal: 

WATER ENGINEERING

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2019
  • Volume: 

    11
  • Issue: 

    39
  • Pages: 

    1-14
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    190
  • Downloads: 

    55
Abstract: 

The statistical methods are used for investigation of water quality in different area that such as univariate and multivariate statistics methods. In the study area, according to cluster diagrams of groundwater quality parameters are plotted in two cluster that due to formations and geological factors. Principle component analysis methods are shown that effective factors such as electrical conductivity, material solution, HCO3-, Mg2+, Cl-, Na+ and total hardness in groundwater quality. According to major parameters and its source, groundwater quality related to geological formation, limestone and evaporated rocks in the study area. The coefficient factor of groundwater parameters in the study area are shown that high relationship between electrical conductivity with SO42-, Na-and Cl-due to halite solution from Ghachsaran formation and high correlation between electric conductivity and SO42-, Na+, Cl-due to sulfate salt and sulfate calcium especially. Also correlation between HCO3-and Mg2+ can be considered for role of dolomite rocks solution in increasing Ca2+ concentration in water. The GQI of groundwater quality in the study area is evaluated that indicated groundwater quality of region are between 73% to 81%, which indicate the groundwater quality placed in suitable to acceptable class of quality that may be affected by geological factors such as lithology, current direction in the area. The correlation between groundwater quality index and quality parameters are shown that total hardness, bicarbonate and dissolved solids had the highest impact on groundwater quality in the study area.

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Journal: 

WATER ENGINEERING

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2019
  • Volume: 

    11
  • Issue: 

    39
  • Pages: 

    15-34
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    143
  • Downloads: 

    48
Abstract: 

Conceptual rainfall-runoff (RR) models, aiming at predicting stream flow from the knowledge of precipitation over a catchment, evapotranspiration, tempreture, and topography of the basin, have become basic and effective tools for flow regime simulation. Calibration of RR models, e. g. WetSpa which has been developed in Belgium, is a process in which parameter adjustment are made so as to match the dynamic behaviour of the RR model to the observed behaviour of the catchment. This research presents an application of the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for multi-objective calibration of WetSpa in Karoon river basin, Iran to optimize 11 global parameters of the WetSpa model. The objective functions are Nash– Sutcliffe and logarithmic Nash– Sutcliffe efficiencies in order to improve the model's performance. Results showed that the evolutionary NSGA-II and PSO algorithms are capable of locating optimal parameter sets in the search space. The measured correlation coefficient in the calibration process was 0. 69 and 0. 71 for the NSGA-II and PSO algorithms, respectively. Moreover RMSE values were calculated as 119. 8 and 152. 3 m3/s for the algorithms. The WetSpa model then was applied for a period of 1-year flood simulation in the basin and the results were analysed. Finally a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the global parameters in which the surface runoff coefficient was the most sensitive parameter with more than 40% influence on the results.

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Journal: 

WATER ENGINEERING

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2019
  • Volume: 

    11
  • Issue: 

    39
  • Pages: 

    35-44
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    82
  • Downloads: 

    27
Abstract: 

The discovery of underground water resources as a way of providing the drinking water in the world due to increasing necessity of the world to water is necessary and inevitable. This study has been done to identify new water resources in Sefidkooh anticline located in the west of Khorramabad. For this purpose, seven layers of information have been developed including the lithology, compression fractures, drainage density, slope, vegetation, temperature and the height using satellite images, geological maps, topographical maps and information field based on fuzzy method in ArcGIS software environment. After mapping effective factors on finding potential of Karst water resources, these maps were weighted using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), based on their relative importance. To provide map of finding potential of karst water resources, available layers were combined by over lapping method in ArcGIS software a with Raster Calculator modules. Based on the results, there are %12. 3, %22. 62, %27. 79, %23. 91 and %13. 69 of the area in zones with very low, low, medium, high and very high potential, respectively.

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Journal: 

WATER ENGINEERING

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2019
  • Volume: 

    11
  • Issue: 

    39
  • Pages: 

    45-56
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    167
  • Downloads: 

    30
Abstract: 

In this study, the relationship between the precipitation over the southern areas of Iran and zonal wind over the Middle East was investigated. The monthly zonal wind data at 200hPa over the Middle East was selected from reanalysis NCEP-NCAR. The principal components analysis was applied to extract the signal modes of the winter (JFM) wind variations. The first empirical orthogonal function was spatially plotted and those grid points with high loading, which had the important role in the first principal component, were determined. These grid points are located in 15 to 22. 5 and 27. 5 to 42. 5. The average of zonal wind within this area was considered as a regional index and the relationship between this index and winter precipitation for 11 synoptic stations in the south of Iran for 1968-2010 was investigated. The results indicated that there is a positive significant correlation at 5% level between wind index and precipitation over the most stations. The constructed wind index has stronger relationship with precipitation over the study area in comparison with southern oscillation index and Persian Gulf sea surface temperature.

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Journal: 

WATER ENGINEERING

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2019
  • Volume: 

    11
  • Issue: 

    39
  • Pages: 

    57-72
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    191
  • Downloads: 

    45
Abstract: 

Groundwater resources play a vital role in the development and sustainability of a territory. Therefore, in areas with low and irregular precipitation and limited access to surface water resources, the management of groundwater resources, in terms of quantity and quality, is the inseparable part of sustainable development. In the present study, principal components analysis (PCA) was used to assess the quality of groundwater resources of Behbahan Plain, Khuzestan province, Iran. In order to perform a groundwater quality analysis, 12 hydro-chemical variables were selected in order. Results of the KMO index and the Bartlett's test illustrate that this is reasonable to use the PCA on the dataset, which is constructed based on the selected variables, for characterization and analysis of groundwater quality in the study area. According to outcomes of the PCA, the first two axes (PC1 and PC2) captured 85. 31% of the total variance in the dataset. The fi rst PCA axis (PC1) explained 76. 68% of the variation in the hydro-chemical data that was mainly affected by 10 variables (TH, SAR, K, Na, Mg, Ca, Cl, SO, TDS and EC). The second component (PC2) contributes 8. 622% of the total variance in the dataset that indicated strong positive correlation with HCO3 and negative correlation with pH. Also, in this study, the relationship between spatial variation of each selected variable and land use were investigated.

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Journal: 

WATER ENGINEERING

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2019
  • Volume: 

    11
  • Issue: 

    39
  • Pages: 

    73-86
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    302
  • Downloads: 

    47
Abstract: 

Water delivery performance of irrigation and drainage networks in Iran is not in the acceptable situation. Evaluation of irrigation and drainage systems is important to increase their performance and decrease their related problems. In the present study, some performance indicators were assessed and evaluated at the end of left bank canal in Doroodzan irrigation network. Performance indicators such as adequacy, efficiency, equity, dependability, and delivery performance ratio were used for the evaluation. Results showed that the equity and dependability indicator values were about 0. 42 and 0. 31, respectively, which categorized in the poor class. The adequacy and efficiency indicator values were 0. 87 and 0. 75, respectively, which categorized in the fair class. About half of the studied canals had a good water delivery adequacy and efficiency, while the others had fair or poor delivery performances. The average value of delivery performance ratio for the studied canals was 1. 27, which showed that 27% of delivered water was excess. Delivered water in 8 canals out of 16 canals were more than intended, while in 5 canals were lower than the intended values. The 3 rest canals received intended water.

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Journal: 

WATER ENGINEERING

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2019
  • Volume: 

    11
  • Issue: 

    39
  • Pages: 

    87-100
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    113
  • Downloads: 

    32
Abstract: 

With respect to salinity of bulk soil and water resources in Golestan province and the importance of rapeseed as oil plant, a pot experiment in field environment was conducted as factorial based on complete randomized blocks with 3 replications in Gorgan region and four irrigation water salinity levels (1. 15, 4, 7 and 10 dS. m-1), two organic fertilizer levels (vermicompost application levels including zero and 10 Tons. ha-1) and four cultivars of canola (Hyola 4815, 308 and 401 and RGS) were studied. The results showed that the effect of salinity on seed yield and water use efficiency and oil percent was significant, while vermicompost significantly affected all traits. Also, cultivar affected seed yield and water use efficiency. Intraction between salinity and vermicompost on all traits, except oil percent, and intraction between vermicompost and cultivar on oil yield and water use efficiency was significant, while salinity and cultivar intraction had affected any traits. Interation between salinity, vemicompost and cultivar was significant on oil yield and water use efficiency. Salinity in the absence of vermicompost resulted decreasing in all traits. However, usage 10 Tons. ha-1 vermicompost led to significance increase of all traits, except oil percentage. Vermicompost was more usefulness in salt stress conditions than non-stressed condition. The highest seed yield, seed water use efficiency, oil yield and oil water use efficiency were obtained in Hyola 308 cultivar while the highest oil percent was observed in the RGS cultivar.

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Journal: 

WATER ENGINEERING

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2019
  • Volume: 

    11
  • Issue: 

    39
  • Pages: 

    101-114
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    97
  • Downloads: 

    32
Abstract: 

Due to rapid growth of urbanization and limited water resources, the need for effective urban water management is now more crucial than ever. In this paper, by using system dynamics approach, a supply and demand model has been developed. For this purpose, all factors affecting Shiraz city green areas has been modeled and by using that model the future water supply and demand is predicted. Then the current and future effective factors that will influence the system, such as the construction of second pipeline water transfer from the Doroudzan dam have been applied in modeling. Three management scenarios are studied: increasing efficiency of irrigation, completion of Shiraz city wastewater treatment plant and the construction of the Tange Sorkh dam. The results of this research show that the impact of Tange sorkh dam construction has a 5% decrease in shortages but using the treated wastewater has 3, 5, 7 and 9 percent decreases for using 30, 50, 75 and 100 percent of treated water for urban landscape, respectively. Simulation also showed that increasing the irrigation efficiency by 10 and 20 percent has 16 and 41 percent decrease on shortages, respectively. At the end, in order to navigate towards sustainable system, combination of scenarios are considered. These scenarios are: reducing the rate of population growth, decreasing domestic and green space water consumption per capita, increasing irrigation efficiency and using treated wastewater for green space. And finally we propose suggestions for system sustainability.

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Journal: 

WATER ENGINEERING

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2019
  • Volume: 

    11
  • Issue: 

    39
  • Pages: 

    115-136
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    123
  • Downloads: 

    32
Abstract: 

Regional analysis is used as one of the low flow estimation methods for the study of drought in areas without sufficient data. In this study, drought analysis is done based on no rainfall periods data from 67 synoptic stations with an appropriate data time and uniform distribution in the country of Iran. After sorting out the daily precipitation, periods without precipitation is assessed in each station. First the homogeneous regions identified and then the most suitable criteria statistical distribution function was determined in those areas. In order to analyze the frequency the FREQ program in MATLAB saftware was used. The minimum and maximum daily rainfall was 17 years for Semnan station and 56 years for Tabriz station and several other stations respectively. Based on regional analysis, the whole country of Iran classified in 8 Classification homogeneous regions. Spatial maps of maximum periods without rain during dry periods showed that from north to south and from West to East in the country were longer and in general in the country there are three separate locations in the distribution of dry periods. In northern Iran, periods without rain spells reduction and increased wet periods, this indicates that low sensitivity of this area to dry condition. Southern regions (particularly the provinces of the Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman) and central regions as the most sensitive areas in terms of reduction of days of rain and increase in precipitation at different return periods were found.

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Journal: 

WATER ENGINEERING

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2019
  • Volume: 

    11
  • Issue: 

    39
  • Pages: 

    137-148
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    81
  • Downloads: 

    17
Abstract: 

Investigation of the shear stress to estimate the scour hole around bridge piers is of utmost importance, but a review of the literature shows that the study of this factor, around protected piers by various methods of scour control has not been studied by the researchers. In this research, a three dimensional numerical model has been used to study the variation shear stress on the bridge pier with submerged vanes. However, due to difficulty of calculating the amount of shear stress in the wild, researchers provided indirect ways to calculate these parameters that one of these methods, is the use of quasi-two-dimensional model Shino and Knight (SKM In this study, the pattern of shear stress distribution around the base with a different number of vanes (2, 4 & 6), with the two angle of the flow (20 and 30 degree) and in flow intensity 0. 95 (critical flow intensity), with both methods were studied and compared. Both model results show that vanes placement has a great effect on reducing velocity of the passing flow and thus decreasing the bed shear stress around the pier. Also analysis of the counts and placement angles showed that 6 vanes rather to 2 and 4 vanes and also angle of 30 degree rather to angle of 20 degree performs better in action, so that the shear stress reduces the amount of 12-15 percent.

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Journal: 

WATER ENGINEERING

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2019
  • Volume: 

    11
  • Issue: 

    39
  • Pages: 

    149-160
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    71
  • Downloads: 

    23
Abstract: 

Intakes are one of the varied types of channel and river-water-intake structures. The experimental model is first simulated through ANSYS-CFX software. The verification results indicate that the results of the numerical model correspond fairly well to the results of the experimental model. using a set of experimental data and a numerical model, an artificial neural network has been designed to predict the velocity field within 30, 60 and 90 degrees deviation angles. The comparison shows that the ANN model has an acceptable level of accuracy in predicting the velocity field of the flow. The sediment flow of the experimental model was then numerically simulated with regard to the results in order to examine the sedimentation of the flow. Among the main parameters which affect the flow, the effects of diversion angles, intake discharge ratio were examined on the ratio of the sediment entering the weir and they were compared with the experimental results. The results were fairly consistent. In a constant diversion ration, the ratio of the sediment entering the weir increases as the diversion angle increases and the amount of the sediment entering the weir increases as the intake discharge ratio increases due to the increase in the velocity while the flow depth is constant and the sediments are being increasingly transferred in the weir. Also, as the intake Froude number increases, the ratio of the sediment entering the channel decrease for a constant intake discharge.

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