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هویت شهر | سال:1392 | دوره:7 | شماره:15

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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID1
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
Journal: 

HOVIATESHAHR

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    7
  • Issue: 

    15
  • Start Page: 

    15
  • End Page: 

    26
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    346
  • Downloads: 

    194
Abstract: 

Expression in Iranian architecture experience is the main point of this article. Today, the spaces remaining from this forgotten architecture make emotional connections with people. Observation of contemporary architectural experiences and their formal specialties shows that being powerful to make emotional connections between the built space and the man is the common ability of stylist architects.Now, in comparison with expressive contemporary masterpieces in the world of architecture, the purpose of this article is to prove that the Iranian architecture experience is an expressive one and unknown Iranian architects were skillful artists, who used the built space as a mould in order to express feelings and shape dialogue between man and space. They were more than just good building engineers.The qualitative analysis of contemporary architectural experiences shows that making emotional connection is the middle step of the process of architectural design, from engineering level to the level of meaning. In this middle step, architect expresses feelings, as a stylist artist, and he may use the way of mimesis or the method of expression. If he has mimicked, then architecture is volumes of built spaces, it is repeatable. In this way of building, nature is a tool for decorating the scene and man is just spectator of a position. But, if he has expressed feelings, then architecture is emotional, it is a situation which connects man to his life space. Here, nature is essential, light , water, wind, plant, etc have been abstracted from their reality in order to be design materials, and essential form of life space is unique and creative.If architecture is expressive, then it is a language: an order of words and their connections, which is laid beneath the surface of the artwork. As a branch of art, architecture has its own specific mould of expression: an order of things in the linguistic organization of the art of shaping human being's life space.Built space, which is recognized by four walls, a roof and a floor, is the mould of expression in architecture. There are many words in the language of architecture, which come together in this mould, to construct essential form of life space. Stylist architect may use natural words, artificial ones or a mixed of the two. Therefore, three types of essential form of space can be recognized.The ideal type of an architectural space is the one that its effect of expression occurs as a soft and hard space. Wall, roof and floor are hard materials and light, water, wind, plant, etc are the soft ones. The resultant is a life space which is as soft as hard is. It is flexible and lets the man to obtain the daily motion of the universe in his built living area. It means: in this way of design, the essential form of space follows lifestyle.Iranian architecture is an artistic experience with expressive effects. Five essential forms of this architecture are: Iranian gardens, palaces, houses, mosques and bazaar complex and elements of urban architecture.

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Journal: 

HOVIATESHAHR

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    7
  • Issue: 

    15
  • Start Page: 

    27
  • End Page: 

    34
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    401
  • Downloads: 

    135
Abstract: 

One of the most ingenuous realties about cities is their perdurability. Expansion of city peripheries. desired or not desired. causes such areas to be annexed to the main body of the city. As in many developing countries, Iranian cities are growing in population and physically expanding at a high rate. For approximately the past five decades, after formulation of the first series of urban development plans, defining the urban growth boundary (UGB) has been an important policy tool of (central) government and urban management agencies. Provision of urban development plans in Iran is under the authority of the central government. Throughout this period, and despite clear evidence indicating the ineffectiveness of the UGB whose policy has been adhered to with no major modifications. Perhaps lack of effort in this area goes back to the absence of scientific studies in the field of level of success of the policies and available tools.It is such an extent that current trend of urban growth management is considered as an appropriate approach. This article, while paying attention to relevant theoretical topics, analyses urban growth management and boundary in Iran .Evaluation of the current growth management process is conducted through definition of special quantitative indices and sample monitoring using non-parametric analysis techniques in GIS.UGB definition error reveals the ignored part of the primary city at the time of provision of urban development plans, located outside the UGB. Thus, this index can represent the credibility of the proposals of urban development plans for the definition of the UGB. It is obvious that neglecting some parts of urbanized areas can cause future inefficiencies in urban growth management. UGB inefficiency index shows the proportion of the final, developed urban area that extends outside of the approved final urban growth zone, that is, outside of the approved UGB. This index reveals the efficiency of the UGB in incorporating urban growth and preventing urban sprawl. This is, then, a reliable basis for evaluation of the efficiency of urban growth management.As a result through a quantitative framework, this research demonstrates the weaknesses in the current procedure (inaccuracy and inefficiency of UGB). The evaluations reveal that the former and current definition of UGB in Iranian urban development plans have not been without error. This is partly because of incorrect assumptions with respect to urbanized areas in urban development plans. In some cases, because of intentional or unintentional mistakes in classifying a part of an urbanized area outside of the urban limits, the UGB does not even cover the real city edge in urban development plans. Another issue is the inefficiency of defined limits in restricting urban growth. Apart from the reality of to what extent the restrictive policies over urban growth are justifiable and necessary, it seems that some part of urbanization occurs outside of the approved urban limits. These two fundamental blunders cast doubt over the accuracy and credibility of the urban management mechanisms in Iran. Applicable results from the research include the necessity to revise the current policy tools.

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Journal: 

HOVIATESHAHR

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    7
  • Issue: 

    15
  • Start Page: 

    35
  • End Page: 

    46
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    311
  • Downloads: 

    132
Abstract: 

To make the knowledge of urban design suitable for the situation of Iran and in order to achieve vernacular urban design, besides broadening the knowledge of urban design, it is utterly crucial to evaluate today's urban design knowledge and its circumstances. Given the fact that, after about 4 decades from the entrance of the knowledge of urban design into Iran, which seems to be an appropriate time for adjustments, the overall endeavors in both theoretical and practical fields are not successful enough. Moreover, there are not convenient investigations to determine the current condition of this field in Iran. In this paper we have tried to survey the condition of urban design's knowledge in the main texts in Iran in both translated and compiled texts to discover the current and future challenges of this knowledge. In fact, we have surveyed all published books until winter of 1388. We have used two definitely substantial references to explain the aim of article, firstly, the article of Anne Vernez Moudon “A Catholic Approach to Organizing What Urban Designers Should Know”, we use the categories about the main domains of urban design which she introduces in her article and secondly, the book of Alexander R. Cuthbert “The Form of City”, that he introduces 40 significant texts of urban design. Texts in Iran were compared with these 40 books in different ways. The hypothesis of this research is that the knowledge of urban design has some deficiencies in both content and structure so to evaluate this hypothesis, at first we should introduce published texts and domains of urban design in Iran and then analyze the contents of them. It determines the amount of attention to these domains and the entrance trend of them into Iran and the proportion of translated books to compiled ones to find out the current criteria of urban design texts. We have used tables and some statistical ways to assess this issue. Thus, in the first table, we conclude that 65% of the most significant books of urban design which Cuthbert listed are not translated in Iran yet. Furthermore, most of books in Iran are translated, in other words, the proportion of translated books to compiled ones is 39 to 25. As far as compiled books are concerned in the second table it should be noted that most of these books take into account vernacular urban design by 75%. Finally, in the third table, we conclude that place studies have the maximum numbers of published books among other theoretical domains and picturesque studies have placed second in this ranking. Consequently, after evaluation of these tables and other deductions, we express the further challenges of urban design's knowledge such as globalization and the question of how to deal with the gap between what we might call the ‘tradition of fixity’ and the ‘prognosis of transience’ and other challenges. In fact, we deduce that this knowledge could not reach to a purpose-built productive flux. Eventually, we propose workable solutions to improve this untenable situation.

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Journal: 

HOVIATESHAHR

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    7
  • Issue: 

    15
  • Start Page: 

    47
  • End Page: 

    58
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    405
  • Downloads: 

    238
Abstract: 

The researchers of residential environments pay attention to three key factors of choice, satisfaction, and behavior. Among these factors, residential satisfaction is considered an important criterion affecting the life of people and in assessing the quality of the residence. According to the results of different researches, the residential satisfaction theory has been formed around the difference between real life of families and what they wish as conditions and situation of residential units and their surrounding areas. In other words, the base and main essence of this theory is paying attention simultaneously to wishes, needs, and desires of the residents. Present study tries to review existing different theories and definitions and enumerate the important factors affecting the residential satisfaction which generally speaking consists of housing, neighbor units and neighborhood along with a list of less important variables and indexes. Then, Maria Amerigo and House Choosing Conceptual Model for determining the residential satisfaction questionnaire studied and after dealing with the objective and subjective features of residing area, the needed general topics for designing residential satisfaction questionnaire are explained. The world experience of Malaysia is analyzed and then, based on resulted variables, the degree of residential satisfaction of residents of Farabi Physicians. Residential Complex is given in frame of three categories, namely, housing, common parts, and residential neighborhood. Finally, conclusions are presented and based on the conclusion, a combined definition of residential satisfaction is presented. The conceptual model is based on analytical, descriptive, and experimental methodology. Its content structure too consists of reviewing different presented definitions, theories and models and analyzing some cases related to residential satisfaction, distributing questionnaires between 120 families residing in Farabi Physicians. Residential Complex, analyzing the gathered information by using SPSS software, and using the gathered information for determining the factors and variables which are effective in explanation of a suitable definition of this concept.The type of research is fundamental of theoretical-experimental category. Furthermore, it must be noted that in section dealing with world experiment, the residential satisfaction resulted from low-priced residences of Malaysia has been analyzed for finding out other general and trivial variables which impact the degree of residential satisfaction, in selecting the studied case, intentionally a complex has been chosen that its residents ate enjoying social welfare.The conclusion will show the critical factors which affect the degree of residential satisfaction in the view of Farabi Physicians. Residential Complex (objective and subjective perception of the residents) and will point at instances which may be neglected in questionnaires and library studies. According to the results, the important factors which affect the degree of residential satisfaction include individual and behavioural features of residing individuals, simultaneous attention to subjective and objective features of surrounding environment, social, cultural, and economic factors, physical features of houses and society, particulars of residential unit, neighbor unit, and surrounding area, and most importantly, the wishes and needs. Considering the commonality of some variables which affect the residential satisfaction degree, many of these factors follow the socio-cultural features of the studied country and society.

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Journal: 

HOVIATESHAHR

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    7
  • Issue: 

    15
  • Start Page: 

    5
  • End Page: 

    14
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    486
  • Downloads: 

    132
Abstract: 

As the word "public space" is used several times throughout this paper, before initializing the discussion, the concepts of and approaches towards public space is briefly and generally discussed here: public space could be considered as the realm for presence of people and as a physical-spatial response to their social, cultural, economic and political needs and appeal, a Physical response which sometimes is offered and finally generated as a down-up process by people themselves and sometimes made by authorities in the form of an up-down process. In fact, public spaces as an arena for social interaction, mixing and intercourse with people have undeniable role and importance in promoting quality of urban life, public coherence and correlation, sense of socializing, social self-motivation, public discourse and etc,. In lieu, people always give liveliness and a unique life to these spaces by their permanent or at times and accidental presence in these spaces either for planned aims like shopping or taking part in a particular ceremony, or rest and recreation, or to see and be seen, or to follow special customs and formalities in particular days or to pass to get to work and simultaneously looking at happenings and incidents of the urban show.The main purpose of this paper is to study and analyze public spaces and the social life in the historical city, Varamin. On this basis, it is aimed to represent a more or less clear image and perception of public spaces of Varamin through considering concepts and suppositions such as daily life, social interactions, companionship, faceto-face encounters, and so on. With regard to fieldwork, the descriptive-analytical narration of the content as well as physical characteristics of places and spaces of Varamin has been represented in the framework of three major types (Urban spaces, Religious spaces, Green spaces) and one minor type (potential public spaces). In conclusion, through a confrontation between fieldwork findings and theoretical rudiments, features and characteristics of Varamin is explained based on the three physical, functional and social criteria.The central and old part of Varamin can be considered as the most seminal public space of the city. This space can be understood as a context of emergence and manifestation of diverse aspects of the concept of the public space such as: social interactions, the sense of community, social self-motivation, and even shopping, relaxing and entertainment, looking, being seen and etc. Besides, other spaces and places such as Saint of Hoseynreza, the Family Park, Panzdah-e Khordad Park, Choub-Bori Square and so on, each of which is based on its nature and characteristics, partly representing a part of diverse dimensions and manifestations of the public space. Among these, studying and analyzing such spaces reveal that all with a more or less divergent intensity and weakness, apart from the quality of their physical-aesthetic facets and dimensions, as appealing urban settlements can be the arena to fulfill people's social, cultural, economic and even political demands and aspirations, thus the stage to appear and crystallize an urban life show.

Yearly Impact:  

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Journal: 

HOVIATESHAHR

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    7
  • Issue: 

    15
  • Start Page: 

    59
  • End Page: 

    70
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    236
  • Downloads: 

    137
Abstract: 

Land Readjustment (LR) is one of the effective land acquisition methods. This method is used for developing and improving urban infrastructure. It also enhances utility and value of land, so Land Readjustment is not a land acquisition method, but a kind of land consolidation method. Implementation of a Land Readjustment project, in certain areas, is accomplished by installing urban infrastructure by means of the land contribution of public facilities, according to a layout plan. On the other hand, it helps in financing project costs by allocating some central rearranged parcels for commercial land uses. In this method, rearrangement of all parcels has been made according to a new layout and land use plan and therefore, all land rights are legally transferred to the new parcels.The aim of this article is to present a practical method in land development management for managing urban development process. Hence, Land Readjustment Program (LRP) as chosen land development management tool in urban area, is presented. First, according to global experience and literature review, different context of its use is considered and effective pattern according to Iranian cities situation is proposed and will be examined in Varamin city.For this purpose, article investigate in Land Readjustment Program experiences in other countries to find suitable criteria for evaluate value of land before and after implementation of this program. Literature review shows that there are universal criteria for this program. These criteria include plot form, plot width, distance to religious place, distance to school, distance to park, distance to commercial facilities, position of plot in its’ block, permissible density, position of plot to arterial street, and infrastructure facilities like water pipes. Then, these criteria were evaluated by experts according to their importance in the program. For valuation of plots, these criteria were used. The main principle of valuation of plots was that value of each plot before and after implementation of Land Readjustment Program is remained equal, by which every owner could receive same benefit from his plot after implementation. For calculating this nominal value of plots, the article used an equation which was presented by other experts. Whole value of each plot include an equation in which three main index were used, namely plot area, value of each criteria, and weight of each criteria. By calculating this equation for each plot and summation for every plot, value of plots could be presented in a practical way.The results of this study show that by utilization of Land Readjustment Program as an administrative tool, it is possible to redeveloping and rearranging urban areas in according to urban needs. It modifies streets network so effective accessibility to parcels will be provided and also secure service provisions for parcels. In this way, infill development of city will be ascertained. Also people participation and especially stakeholders' participation, as the main principle of new paradigms of urban theory and practice, will be provided by attracting effective groups in plan implementation. Finally, Land Readjustment Program will incresae effectiveness of urban development plans.

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Writer: 

RIAHIFARD ABBAS

Journal: 

HOVIATESHAHR

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    7
  • Issue: 

    15
  • Start Page: 

    71
  • End Page: 

    82
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    193
  • Downloads: 

    113
Abstract: 

Development in modern technology and changes in urban life have created fundamental adaptation in neighborhoods environment in modern cities. Neighborhoods which were calm and peaceful realms for living, without visual disorders had important role in social communication, empathy. These environments nowadays have changed into illegible and chaotic environment which neighborhoods, neighbors and their human communication lose their concepts and values. It can be said that governments and rulers as well as designers, architects and urban planners have influenced on these changes and also the results of them. New spatial organization patterns in neighborhoods causes fundamental changes in old urban fabrics and visual appearance of cities and people are the one how scarified. After the defeat of modernism knowledge in seventieth decade (As Charles Jenks notified it with destroying Port Eago residential complexes in the United States that presented the weakness of modern knowledge in growing the quality of residential environments), scientists and urban designers have seek new pattern with consideration on distribution of open spaces in urban fabric to increase the quality of design and life in residential areas. Nowadays living in apartments and high rise development is undeniable truth of urban life caused by scientific progress. So it is necessary to provide security and wellbeing of their residents who have limited choice in living environment. Surveys can help to create livable and dynamic environments in residential area for our children to live in a place in harmony with their nature and nature.This change occurred in Iran from the late period of the Qajar Dynasty on, Neighborhoods influenced from modern technology and knowledge and specifically vehicles, like western countries changed fundamentally without any consideration to future and qualitative needs. This paper have surveyed on the appropriate distribution of open space in order to upgrade the quality of modern urban residential areas in Tehran. It also mentioned that the way of open space distribution through the residential areas was not suitably allocated. In addition, there has not been an intellectual pattern to distribute these open spaces and because of improper use of western patterns in organizing the open and occupied/populated spaces throughout Tehran residential districts, the open spaces have not played an important role in revival of past concepts and values. Finally, in order to promote the qualified role of open spaces in modern urban residential sites in Tehran, some techniques were presented. The paper firstly have presented the history of patterns in developing residential areas and the changes in neighborhoods structure since 1900 up to now in the west as well as Tehran with investigation on quality and open spaces distribution and pattern in three districts, Velenjac, Narmak, Zibadasht complexes. Data gathered in this investigation by surveying in the area and interviewing with residence. In addition the gathered data have compared and analyzed due to the nature on incomputable qualitative aspects of the research. Finally, the comparison of case studies shows the importance open spaces and the valuably of their distribution to the density in quality of residential areas.

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Journal: 

HOVIATESHAHR

Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    7
  • Issue: 

    15
  • Start Page: 

    83
  • End Page: 

    93
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    1030
  • Downloads: 

    626
Abstract: 

Iranian patterns of construction have changed severely in the last decades, due to the increasing urbanization processes, as in many other countries worldwide, Demands for large scale building constructions decreased the sensitivity and accuracy of the Architectural designs. Lack of appropriate concern and consideration for human needs and the subsequent psychological effects on modern residential designs in Iran causes many complications in social and individual life. Among the most important human needs, which have been neglected in the modern Iranian designs, we can mention the needs for privacy and social interactions. Today, based on a wide verity of reasons people are required to live a collective life in the form of “multi-unit building”. However they are not only deprived from the advantages of this kind of social life, but also they consider this situation, as a compromise to their privacy and individuality. This also contributes to the problems of relationship between the residents. In fact, there should be a solution to establish a balance between the social interaction and privacy of people living in such a situation. On the other hand, in Iran, being neighbors is traditionally considered as a close functional and emotional relationship. Therefore, the roots of the current cold relationships in residential environments should be looked for in the lack of consideration in the design of the neighborhoods and buildings. Also, In the contemporary architecture of Iran, following the decline of open spaces in residential architecture, and converting them to a route for moving cars, not only these spaces are not adequate to satisfy social needs but cause the cutting of social relations in the neighborhoods. So, considering the importance of relationships and social interactions between humans and ignoring that in modern designs, as for the lacking of such researching in the country, this study will improve the social interactions of residents and enhance neighborly relations by examining and understanding the factors in the design of open spaces in residential complexes. This study is the type of applied-survey research, after explaining the various aspects of social relationships among humans, investigates the effect of environment and the role of open spaces in increasing the social interactions of residents. And in the process of this review has been used the comments from residents of three residential complexes in Isfahan for quantitative assessment. These residential complexes have different patterns of design, “Zeitoon complex” is an example that has been attended to the type of landscaping design and creation of open spaces. “Moshtagh complex” is another complex that has a wide outdoor space but considering the various factors in the design of open space can be seen less. “Aftab complex” is the third complex that has no open space. After analyzing the questionnaires responses, findings show that various factors such as socially homogeneous of residents and use of effective design patterns for creating the safe, attractive and convenient environment for the presence of family members in open spaces of complex has considerable impacts in relationships and social interactions of the neighborhoods.

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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID