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مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID1
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
مرکز اطلاعات علمی SID
Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    15
  • Issue: 

    12
  • Start Page: 

    1
  • End Page: 

    4
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    7353
  • Downloads: 

    5434
Abstract: 

Background: The tuberculin skin test is the most commonly used test for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) infection. The basis of tuberculin testing is the induction of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to the intradermal injection of tuberculin. Unfortunately, this test is incapable of distinguishing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection from Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination or infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relative potency of human tuberculin skin test (produced by Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute) in the guinea pigs sensitized with M. tuberculosis, M. bovis BCG and M. avium.Materials and Methods: For skin test, different groups of guinea pigs were sensitized with M. tuberculosis, M. avium and M. bovis BCG. Guinea pigs were injected intradermally with 0.1 ml of 0.4, 2 and 10 mg/ml of tuberculin. Skin reactions (diameters of erythema, in millimeters) were independently measured 24 h after injection and results were calculated.Results: The results showed that the specificity index of human tuberculin test for guinea pigs sensitized with M. bovis BCG in compare of guinea pigs sensitized with M. tuberculosis was equal and for guinea pigs sensitized with M. avium was not equal.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that human tuberculin test produced by Razi Institute for diagnosis of latent infection to M. tuberculosis has lower specificity for M. bovis in comparison with M. avium.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    15
  • Issue: 

    12
  • Start Page: 

    13
  • End Page: 

    16
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    7641
  • Downloads: 

    5491
Abstract: 

Background: Leishmaniasis is one of the most important health problems in many areas of Iran. This study aimed to identify leishmania species in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis using PCR teqnique based on sequencing ITS1 primers in villages of the central county of Qom province.Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was done on 169 patients who with leishmaniosis, based on clinical and laboratory confirmation treated and were followed in health center of Qomrood in 2010. This data was recorded in epidemiologic data forms. The DNA was extracted by KIAGEN kits. The extracted DNA was exploited to identify the parasite by PCR technique. The data were analyzed by SPSS-17 software. Chi square and Fisher’s exact test were used for the evaluation of the hypothesis.Results: The PCR result confirmed the parasite positive slides and obtained bands from these slides were seen in the range of 350 bp which are expected band for the leishmania major parasite. The most frequent age group was above 15 years old (71.5%). Hands and feet were the most common sites of ulcer (78.8%).19.5 of patients had 3 ulcers and more. Highest disease prevalence was observed in months October, December and November.Conclusion: The PCR results illustrated that the prevalent CL in the central county of Qom province is Zoonotic type (ZCL), and the agent of disease is leishmania major parasite. In conclusion, identification of the disease and parasite type can help the health officials to make appropriate strategies for its prevention and control.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    15
  • Issue: 

    12
  • Start Page: 

    17
  • End Page: 

    22
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    9415
  • Downloads: 

    6799
Abstract: 

Background: Tick-borne diseases are of the most important diseases in the world including Iran. This survey was conducted to understand the eco-epidemiology of tick-borne hemoparasitic diseases in Qazvin province, Iran, using Geospatial Information System (GIS).Materials and Methods: DNA samples were extracted from livestock blood samples collected from different regions of Qazvin province.18S rRNA-based PCR targeted Theileria/ Babesia species were done. Initial parameters for mapping the local tick-borne hemoparasitic diseases and raster files were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization and Iranian Space Agency. Mapping of the parameters in relation to prevalence of these diseases were done. Statistical analysis was used for weighting parameters ranking and predicting spatial distribution in different climatic zones.Results: Vapor pressure, precipitation, and altitude are of several environmental factors correlated with tick abundances. Based on the generated maps and the results of this survey, some predicting results could be used for predicting tick-borne diseases and their control.9.7% of ruminant blood samples (N=16) were infected with protozoa pathogens from the genera Theileria and all of the specimens were negative regarding to Babesia genera.Conclusion: Results showed that prediction of a very high prevalence of Theileria/ Babesia species and mapping endangered area is possible in different parts of Iran. Based on the environmental conditions, key factors exist for host-seeking and range expansion of ticks.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    15
  • Issue: 

    12
  • Start Page: 

    23
  • End Page: 

    27
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    211
  • Views: 

    10080
  • Downloads: 

    2685
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Background: Hepatitis B virus is one of the main factors causing acute and chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Among others, healthcare workers are at the highest risk for exposure to hepatitis B virus. Vaccination against hepatitis B virus is one of the protective strategies but anti-HBs titer will be reduced in the sera of vaccinated people after some time. The aim of this study was to determine the titer of anti-HBs in the sera of vaccinated medical staffs in three consecutive years since administration of the last dose of hepatitis B vaccine.Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 90 Omidvar Hospital (Lar, Iran) medical staffs that had passed 3-4 months since the administration of the last dose of hepatitis B vaccine. All sera samples were tested for anti-HBs in an ELISA method. Finally, statistical analysis was performed using SPSS-16 software.Results: This study was conducted in duration of 3 consecutive years on 90 medical staffs including 14.44% lab technicians, 10% obstetricians, 43.35% nurses, 6.665% specialists, 5.55% general practitioners and 20% maid staffs. While HBs Ab titer was measured as 87.7% (>100 mIU/ml) in the first year elapsed since the last dose of hepatitis B vaccination, it had been decreased to 55.4% after 3 years.Conclusion: The results showed that re-vaccination of the medical staffs is quite necessary as anti-HBs titer had been decreased after 3 years and the desired immune response was seen only in 55.4% of the medical staffs.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    15
  • Issue: 

    12
  • Start Page: 

    28
  • End Page: 

    31
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    7416
  • Downloads: 

    8060
Abstract: 

Background: Campylobacter species are common bacterial pathogens causing gastroenteritis in humans worldwide.Materials and Methods: A total of 148 randomly sheep carcasses were sampled by surface section of neck meat taken immediately after slaughter analyzed using microbiological examinations.Results: Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 10.13% meat cultures samples examined. Among these 80% sample were C. jejuni and 20% sample were C. coli. Using PCR assays, the number of positive campylobacters increased to 11.48%. Of these positive samples, 82.35% were C. jejuni and 17.65% were C. coli. Significantly higher prevalence rates of Campylobacter spp. (p<0.05) were found in the meat samples taken in summer (47.05%).Conclusion: The PCR is a reliable and sensitive method which can be used as a diagnostic technique for the detection of campylobacter in lamb samples.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    15
  • Issue: 

    12
  • Start Page: 

    32
  • End Page: 

    35
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    211
  • Views: 

    18642
  • Downloads: 

    5354
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Background: Zahedan is a tropical region in southeast of Iran. Due to importance of congenital Toxoplasmosis and absence of study evidences in this field in Zahedan, this research was accomplished.Materials and Methods: 221 serum samples were collected from pregnant women referring to reference laboratory of Zahedan. The IgG and IgM antibody levels against were examined using ELISA method.Results: 30.8% cases out of all samples were IgG positive and in 1.4% cases IgG and IgM were both positive for toxoplasmosis.Conclusion: 69.2% of pregnant women were serologically negative against toxoplasmosis; therefore hygiene education to eliminate risk factors especially during pregnancy period seems to be imperative.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    15
  • Issue: 

    12
  • Start Page: 

    36
  • End Page: 

    39
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    20857
  • Downloads: 

    4847
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Background: Due to importance of arthropods as urban pest, such Health and Nutritional, Textile, Structural, Storage pest and role of them in human being, this study was done to show determine of houses infestation status to urban pest (Arthropods) city of Kashan in 2010.Materials and Methods: A Descriptive-analytical study has been done on houses The houses were selected by cluster random and Urban pests of them, by use of hand lens were identified. The results were analyzed using abundance tables and SPSS-11.5 software and statistic tests X2 and fisher exact.Results: The results of study have shown that prevalence of urban pest, Health pest 99.6%, Nutritional pest 32.6%, textile and structural pest 37.4% were seen. Out of total houses, 98% mosquitoes, 96.4% ant, 92.6% fly, 78% cockroaches species, 56.8% spider, 37.6% termite, 34.6% storage pests, 12% clothes moth, 8.2% scorpion species, 3.6% bug, 3.2% tick and 2.6% millipede were identified.Conclusion: The prevalence of infestation urban pest is high. Mosquitoes, ant, fly and cockroach were seen more the other. So methods control training, houses protection and solid and water waste management is being suggested.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    15
  • Issue: 

    12
  • Start Page: 

    40
  • End Page: 

    41
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    211
  • Views: 

    12490
  • Downloads: 

    4559
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica. Human is accidentally infected by ingesting contaminated drinking water or plants in endemic area (mainly North of Iran). The disease is usually reported from the sheep raising area of our country. We report a case of human fascioliasis in south-eastern Iran with dry climate without any history of travel to endemic regions.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    15
  • Issue: 

    12
  • Start Page: 

    42
  • End Page: 

    42
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    7558
  • Downloads: 

    8626
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common protozoa that infect humans and a wide range of mammalians and birds. The infection is particularly important in women when they acquire the infection for the first time during their pregnancy where an intrauterine transmission of the parasite may occur. Effective prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis can permit a decision to terminate the pregnancy at the early stage or initiate the treatment of late-term fetus in uterus. Prenatal diagnosis is commonly performed based on biological and serological tests on fetal blood and amniotic fluid, and ultrasonographic examination of fetus.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    15
  • Issue: 

    12
  • Start Page: 

    43
  • End Page: 

    43
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    6922
  • Downloads: 

    4458
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

the zoonotic diseases are important factors in hygiene and health of each society. Staphylococcus aureus is considered as the third factor in levels of prominence of nutritional diseases.The purpose of this descriptive-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence and microbial resistance of this pathogenic factor in Rafsanjan.To achieve this purpose, we randomly collected 240 cases from organizations of milk gathering. In Rafsanjan from April 2011 to March 2012 and they were transferred into the laboratory beside ice pieces with standard instructions. The volume of sampling 240 cases was determined by n=Z2´P´(1-P)/d2 then 4Tnutrient broth4T and blood agar culture media had been prepared according to instruction of manufactory (Merck Laboratories, Germany) and after that the cases were transferred into these media.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    15
  • Issue: 

    12
  • Start Page: 

    44
  • End Page: 

    44
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    8096
  • Downloads: 

    5603
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

physicochemical quality of drinking water has a direct impact on consumer health and fluoride, nitrite, nitrate, total dissolved solids compounds and pH are their important parameters that have closely relationship with community health. In many cases, source nitrate of water is due to agriculture activities, landfill sites and also potassium nitrate that used in the manufacture of glass, nitrite in form of sodium nitrite used as a food preservative too. Also there are different levels of fluoride in natural waters and its high concentration is usually found in very vast geographic areas in the belt deposits, volcanic and granitic rocks. Adverse amount of these compounds in water can cause a variety of diseases including met-hemoglobinema, skeletal and dental inelegance, Down syndrome and reduce IQ (Intelligence Quotient).

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    15
  • Issue: 

    12
  • Start Page: 

    45
  • End Page: 

    45
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    211
  • Views: 

    11807
  • Downloads: 

    7880
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

the fruits and vegetables are carrier microbial flora and in every stage of production, transportation, packaging, storage and sale to consumers are exposed to microbial contamination. Raw fruits and vegetables are suitable place for growing a variety of parasites and bacteria such as Shigella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Campylobacter that many of theirs can cause epidemic if the conditions have provide. The use of disinfectants is one of the most important ways to prevent diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the different disinfections efficiency of fruits and vegetables in market of Kermanshah city (disinfectants 1, 2, 3) that the active ingredient in all three is benzalkonium chloride. The efficiency of three types of disinfectants was studied on removal microbial load of six types of vegetables (coriander, parsley, cress, leek, radish and onion).

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    15
  • Issue: 

    12
  • Start Page: 

    5
  • End Page: 

    8
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    8897
  • Downloads: 

    5147
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Background: To compare culture methods with multiplex PCR technique for identification of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis from suspicious patients with clinical history of brucellosis and positive serological test (Rose Bengal test and serum agglutination test).Materials and Methods: In this study, 160 blood samples from patients suspected of Brucellosis with high serum titers of 1/80 were studied. All samples were cultured in Brucella-specific media. Brucella species were identified by using microbiological methods. DNA was extracted with Phenol-chloroform DNA extraction method. IS711 was amplified simultaneously using three specific primers and obtained patterns were analyzed.Results: From 160 samples, 47.5% (76) were culture positive cases from which 43 cases were B. melitensis and 33 were B. abortus With the PCR technique 108 were detected positive from which 45.3% were B. abortus and 54.6% were B. melitensis. It should be noted that all 76 samples with positive culture were also identified by PCR.Conclusion: Generally, use of the molecular technique multiplex PCR in addition to increased speed and accuracy and less false results than bacterial culture method, is able to identify different species of brucella. This will facilitate the treatment process.

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Issue Info: 
  • Year: 

    2013
  • Volume: 

    15
  • Issue: 

    12
  • Start Page: 

    9
  • End Page: 

    12
Measures: 
  • Citations: 

    0
  • Views: 

    9919
  • Downloads: 

    4265
Keywords: 
Abstract: 

Background: Leishmania is a single cell parasite causing leishmaniasis, which is a common disease between humans and animals. Due to the importance of in-vitro culture of the parasite in leishmania research, developing new methods for in-vitro cultivation of the parasite has always been a goal for leishmania researchers. The main objective of this study was to use sheep and bovine hydatid cyst fluids as alternatives for fetal calf serum (FCS) in leishmania in-vitro culture.Materials and Methods: A total of 1 million leishmania promastigotes were added to 4 flasks as follow. A flask containing DMEM medium with 10% fetal bovine serum, a flask containing DMEM and 10% sheep hydatid cyst fluid, a flask containing DMEM medium with 10% bovine hydatid cyst fluid and a flask containing DMEM medium alone. After 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 21 and 24 days, the number of parasites were counted and compared.Results: The result of this study showed that, DMEM medium enriched with 10% sheep hydatid cyst fluid in 168 hours and medium enriched with 10% bovine hydatid cyst fluid in 96 hours can act as a good alternative for fetal bovine serum in the culture Leishmania major.Conclusion: The results showed that sheep and bovine hydatid cyst fluid can be used as alternatives to FCS for dense cultivation of leishmania. The results also showed that, the growth of promastigotes in medium enriched with bovine cyst fluid is more rapid than the medium enriched with sheep cyst fluid in the beginning of cultivation.

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