Background: Agricultural biotechnology (especially, genetic engineering) presents opportunities for reducing poverty, food insecurity, child malnutrition, and natural resource degradation, and increasing the efficiency of crop improvement. However, the integration of biotechnology into agricultural research and transgenic plant production in many countries faces many challenges, which must be addressed: financial, technical, political, environmental, activism, intellectual-property, biosafety, and trade-related issues. Technological innovations bring their own set of benefits and risks to the environment, and no technology is 100% safe. When a new technology can resolve one of human problems, without itself causing new problem, its application is moral. On the other hand, unscientific and inconsequential reasons to oppose with a new technology are immoral. Therefore, if transgenic crops in any way reduce the adverse effects of conventional agriculture, without themselves causing additional problems, they represent a technical and ethical advance. It is evident that opinions on transgenic crops are based on value judgments and not on scientifically established facts, and such values and attitudes are likely to change with time and circumstance and with modifications to conceptual systems. Scientific concerns of this technology can be resolved by scientific reasons.Conclusion: This article represents a review of some of the ethical dilemmas that have arisen as a result of the development and deployment of transgenic crop plants. The potential for transgenic crops to alleviate human hunger and the possible effects on human health are discussed. Risks and benefits to the environment resulting from genetic engineering of crops are considered, in addition to effects on biodiversity. The socioeconomic impacts and distribution of benefits from transgenic technologies are reviewed.