Febrile convulsions are the most common type of seizure in infants and young children. Febrile seizures are age dependent and are rare prior to 9mo. and after 5yrs. of age. There is a strong family history of febrile convulsion in siblings and parents, suggesting a genetic predisposition. The convulsion is associated with a rapidly raising bodys temperature and usually develops when the core temperature reaches 390C or higher. The seizure is typically generalized, tonic-clonic of a few seconds to 10-min.duration, followed by a brief postictal period of drowsiness. Its prognosis is excellent, however, a febrile convulsion may signify a serious underlying acute infectious disease such as sepsis or bacterial meningitis, so that each child must be carefully examined and appropriately investigated for the cause of the associated fever. Anemia is also common in this age period, so we decided to find any possible relationship between febrile convulsion and anemia.This case - control study was done in one hundred infants and children with febrile convulsion and one hundred of children between 9 mo. to 5yrs.of age with fever of 390C or higher without seizure. Their hemoglobin concentrations were measured and compared in these two groups. In children with febrile convulsion, 29% had anemia as in the control group (29%). Odds ratio with 95% confidence limits was 0.52 to 1.93.Despite the Kobrinsky and Pisacanes findings, we pointed out no relationship between febrile convulsions and the anemia.In this study the Prevaleance of febrile seizure was higher among males than females (68% versus 32%) and the peak time of onset was between 9 -24 months of age, average 23/11 months. In this study we only measured the hemoglobin concentration but the types of anemia were not determined.