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مشخصات

عنوان:

ارزیابی توده های سیر ایرانی به منظور تعیین کلون های برتر دارویی - زراعی



گروه تخصصی:  پزشکی

سازمان مجری:  پژوهشکده گیاهان دارویی 

گروه پژوهشی: پژوهشی کشت و توسعه

پژوهشگران: 
بقالیان کامبیز (مسئول طرح)
ضیایی سیدعلی (همکار طرح)
نقدی بادی حسن علی (همکار طرح)
نقوی محمدرضا (همکار طرح)

تاریخ خاتمه:  دی ماه 1384

کارفرما: 

خروجی طرح: 
 
تلفن: 4702499-4702505-4702611-0261-66950447-021

نشانی سازمان مجری: تهران، خیابان انقلاب، خیابان قدس، بزرگمهر غربی، پلاک 97، ساختمان اصلی: کیلومتر 55 اتوبان تهران قزوین
 

چکیده:

سیر (Allium sativum L.) از قدیمی ترین گیاهان زراعی است که تاکنون شناخته شده است. شواهدی مبنی بر استفاده از سیر در متون قدیمی مصر، هند و چین باستان یافت شده است که قدمت برخی از آنها به پنج هزار سال قبل می‌رسد (48).
خاستگاه سیر، آسیای مرکزی شامل قرقیزستان، تاجیکستان، ترکمنستان و ازبکستان می باشد و از آنجا به سایر نقاط جهان مهاجرت نموده است. توده های سیر موجود در آسیای مرکزی از تنوع ژنتیکی بسیار زیادی برخوردار بوده و برخلاف سیرهای اهلی شده امروزی، هنوز توانایی تولید گل و بذر را حفظ کرده اند. همچنین والد اصلی سیرهای امروزی یعنی گونه
Allium longicuspis نیز در این منطقه حضور گسترده ای دارد (15).



کلیدواژگان:

 
 
Title:

Evaluation of Iranian Garlic (Allium sativum) Eecotypes for Determination Clones with More Medicinal-Agronomical Value



Abstract:

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a sterile plant from bulb vegetables group, which only reproduces with vegetative mode, i.e. clove cultivation. On the other hand its medicinal value has been increased in recent years. The constituent of garlic has been divided to two main groups including sulfur and non-sulfur containing compounds. Most of the medicinal properties of garlic are referable to a sulfur compound known as allicin. According to British pharmacopia 1998, the minimum content of allicin to ensure pharmaceutical and economical viability of garlic product should be 4.5 mg g-1. The allicin content of garlic is controlled by genetical, environmental and agronomical factors, so introduction of new garlic clones with suitable allicin content and agronomical traits is needed for production in large-scale. The considerable morphological and biochemical variation between ecotypes are suitable with the objective of selection the varieties. The vegetative mode of garlic multiplication restricts applicable breeding methods. Garlic has a high variation in its center of origin, i.e. central Asia and after migration its variation has been increased because of different ecological condition existed in domestication areas. On the other hand, translocations of garlic to other areas lead to induction of new biological characters. According to what was mentioned, 24 ecotypes collected from main garlic cultivation areas of Iran, evaluated for parameters including bulb mean weight, clove mean weight, clove number per bulb and allicin content. In the next stage, along 2002-2003, ecotypes cultivated in a field examination using complete randomized block design with three replications and 24 ecotypes (treatment). All parameters were recorded according to descriptors of International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI). The evaluated field parameters were yield, bulb weight, clove weight, clove number, plant height, leaf number, basal leaf length and existing or non-existing of scape. The oil and allicin content were evaluated in this stage, too. Between pre-culture evaluated parameters, clove number had the highest variation. Analysis of variance in post-cultural stage showed that the ecotypes were significantly different in all evaluated parameters. The yield of ecotypes showed a significant and positive relation with the number of leaf, clove weight and bulb weight. Stepwise regression revealed that leaf number and bulb weight determine 65% of yield variation. Allicin content evaluation in both stages (pre and post field examination), confirmed that pharmaceutical potential of Iranian ecotypes were higher than standard grade. There was no relationship between ecological origins and allicin content. We did not find similarity between dendrogrames created by cluster analysis in pre and post cultivation stages. Also, There was not existed relationship between dendrogram groupings and ecological areas. Simple correlation between Allicine and phenotypic parameters was not significant. The highest heritability was obtained for leaf basal length (H2=0/96) and it was relatively high for allicin content (H2=0/64). In general, according to results of this research we found that Iranian ecotypes had a very high potential in order to breeding and introducing varieties with acceptable agronomical and medicinal value.



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