Paper Information

Title: 

ANALYSIS AND CONTROL OF MYCOTOXINS IN FOODS AND FEEDS IN I.R. IRAN

Type: SPEECH
Author(s): YAZDANPANAH H.*
 
 *PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY DEPARTMENT, SCHOOL OF PHARMACY, SHAHEED BEHESHTI UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, TEHRAN, I.R. IRAN
 
Name of Seminar: IRANIAN CONGRESS OF TOXICOLOGY
Type of Seminar:  CONGRESS
Sponsor:  SOCIETY OF TOXICOLOGY
Date:  2004Volume 8
 
 
Abstract: 

Mycotoxins are organic, complex, secondary metabolites produced by various species of fungi. Some of the best known mycotoxins include aflatoxins, ochratoxin a, trichothecenes, fumonisins, zearalenone and patulin, among others. A wide range of commodities are affected by mycotoxins. Mycotoxins can affect human and animal health. Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that certain mycotoxins are associated with different forms of human cancer.
Methods: From 1998-2002, different groups of mycotoxins were analyzed in foods and feeds in Iran which are as follows: aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in cereals in Mazandaran Province in 1998, fumonisins in corn during 1998-2000, zearalenone in corn in Mazandaran Province in 2000, aflatoxins in pistachio during 2001-2002, and patulin in apple juice between 2001 and 2002. For detoxification of aflatoxins, the role of roasting on aflatoxin-contaminated pistachio nuts was assessed. Aflatoxin B1 and B2 were detected in 88.8% and 66.6% of samples at a mean level of 15.8 and 3.0 ng/g, respectively.
Concerning the simultaneous occurrence of three carcinogenic mycotoxins including aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and fumonisins, the highest level of aflatoxin - and fumonisin - contaminated corn was co-contaminated with ochratoxin A at a concentration of 0.35mcg/kg. Regarding aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in barley samples, all of the samples resulted lower than limit of detection. A comparison of the results of fumonisin B1 contamination in the corn of Mazandaran Province indicated higher mean and maximum levels during 2000 (mean: 5.6, max: 5.7mg/kg) than those found during 1999 (mean: 3.2, max: 7.7 mg/kg) and 1998 (mean: 2.3, max: 4.0 mg/kg). But, the mean levels of fumonisin B1 in samples collected from markets in Isfahan Province in the 1998 and 1999 samples (0.17 and 0.22 mg/kg, respectively) were significantly lower than the levels found in corn from Mazandaran. Regarding zearalenone, 3 out of 40 (7.5%) pre-harvested corn samples were contaminated with zearalenone at levels of 100, 110 and 212 ng/g. This study was the first report of zearalenone occurrence in Iranian corn. After establishing a HPLC method for analysis of aflatoxins, pistachio nuts produced in Iran during March 2002 – February 2003 (and exported to EU) were analyzed for Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2. Among 10067 samples analyzed, AFB1 was detected in 3699 samples (36.7% of the total) with the mean and median of 5.9 and 0.05ng/g, respectively. AFB1 level in 1191 samples (11.8%) was above the permitted limit of Aflatoxin B1 in pistachio in Iran (5ng/g).A survey of the presence of patulin was conducted on 65 locally produced commercial apple juice (42 samples) and apple juice concentrates (23 samples) purchased from retail outlets or producers. Overall 33% of the apple juice samples had patulin levels higher than 50mcg/l with maximum level of 285mcg/l and 56% of the apple juice concentrates with patulin level of higher than 50 mcg/l (maximum level recommended by the Codex Alimentarius) and maximum level of 148 mcg/l. Roasting grounded pistachio kernels, at 150˚C for 30 min produced significant degradation of both aflatoxin B1 and B2 without any noticeable change in taste of samples. Roasting samples with 144 ppb initial level of aflatoxin B1 at 150˚C reduced level of aflatoxin B1 to 63% while in samples with 235 ppb, aflatoxin B1 reduced to 19% of initial level. Since there was no regulation for mycotoxins in Iran; Institute of Standards has set maximum limits for mycotoxins in foods and feeds. But the Iranian regulation on mycotoxins should be revised. At the international level, Iran requested Codex (FAO/WHO) Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants for setting maximum limits for aflatoxins in pistachio. For prevention, monitoring and control of mycotoxins in foods, a project is being done by FAO in Iran entitled "Management, control and analysis of mycotoxins in Iran".

 
Keyword(s): 
 
Yearly Visit 14   tarjomyar
 
Latest on Blog
Enter SID Blog