Paper Information

Title: 

FACTORS THAT COMBINE TO AFFECT CHILD AND WEIGHT STATUS AND LITERACY/NUMERACY

Type: SPEECH
Author(s): A. O’DEA JENNIFER*
 
 *UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA
 
Name of Seminar: 2ND NATIONAL AND 1ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE FOR BEST PRACTICES OF PRIMARY HEALTH CARE
Type of Seminar:  CONFERENCE
Sponsor:  NORTH KHORASAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES
Date:  2012Volume 2
 
 
Abstract: 

CHILD HEALTH INCORPORATES MANY DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS, INCLUDING PHYSICAL, SOCIAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, EMOTIONAL AND CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES. THE PREVENTION OF POTENTIAL HEALTH PROBLEMS SUCH AS CHILDHOOD OBESITY AND ITS SEQUELAE OFTEN LIE IN CHANGING THE CHILD AND FAMILY ENVIRONMENT WITH A FOCUS ON BEHAVIOR CHANGE. IN RECENT INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, THE PRECURSORS OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES TEND TO BE STRONGLY RELATED TO SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS (SES), PARTICULARLY FACTORS SUCH AS LOW INCOME AND POOR PARENTAL EDUCATION. IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, CHILDREN FROM HIGHER SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS FAMILIES TEND TO BE MORE AT RISK OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY AND LATER LIFE PROBLEMS SUCH AS TYPE 2 DIABETES AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE. IN MANY OF THE RAPIDLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, THE IMPORTANCE OF PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF THE GROWING PROBLEM OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY IS THEREFORE EXTREMELY IMPORTANT. IN AUSTRALIA, OUR RECENT LONGITUDINAL STUDY FOUND THAT THE COMBINATION OF LOW SLEEP AND LOW SES PREDICTED HIGH BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS OVER 4 YEARS. CHILDREN IN THE UPPER TERTILE OF SLEEP HAD A 2.3 KILOGRAM LOWER WEIGHT GAIN AND A LOWER BMI INCREASE (0.45 KG) THAN CHILDREN IN THE LOWEST SLEEP TERTILE AND THIS WAS INDEPENDENT OF BASELINE BMI OR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. THOSE WITH THE HIGHEST BMI HAD THE LOWEST SLEEP AND LOW SES. SLEEP IS RELATED TO THE PRODUCTION OF APPETITE HORMONES SUCH AS LEPTIN, GHRELIN AS WELL AS CORTISOL, SO THAT LOW SLEEP MAY PREDICT GREATER APPETITE. LOW SLEEP MAY ALSO RESULT IN TIREDNESS AND LESS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. LOW SLEEP MAY ALSO PREDICT BREAKFAST SKIPPING WHICH IN TURN PREDICTS OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY IN BOTH CHILDREN AND ADULTS, PROBABLY VIA APPETITE DYSREGULATION AND LOW PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. HENCE, DIET, NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY CHANGES MAY BE INTERRELATED WITH SLEEP AND VICE VERSA. PREVENTION OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY IN PRIMARY CARE PRACTICE SHOULD INCORPORATE AN ASSESSMENT OF SLEEP PATTERNS; BREAKFAST PATTERNS AND PSYCHOSOCIAL HEALTH AS THESE ALL AFFECT EATING AND EXERCISING BEHAVIORS. IN ADDITION, OUR RECENT STUDY ALSO SHOWS THE POSITIVE AFFECT OF BREAKFAST AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON CHILDREN’S LITERACY AND NUMERACY SCORES AS WELL AS THE FACT THAT THESE INDICATORS OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT ARE INDEPENDENT OF SES. PROMOTING A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE FOR PHYSICAL HEALTH AS WELL AS MENTAL HEALTH AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IS A POSITIVE WAY TO ENGAGE PARENTS IN CHILD AND ADOLESCENT HEALTH PROMOTION IN PRIMARY CARE PRACTICE. FURTHER, THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY AND OTHER BEHAVIOR ORIENTED PROBLEMS IN BOTH DEVELOPING AND DEVELOPED COUNTRIES IS NOT ONLY AN IMPORTANT ISSUE FOR PRIMARY CARE PRACTITIONERS, BUT IS ALSO AN IMPORTANT ISSUE TO BE CONSIDERED BY POLICY MAKERS AND THOSE INVOLVED IN THE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION EDUCATIONAL CURRICULA IN SCHOOLS, UNIVERSITIES, WORK PLACES AND COMMUNITIES.

 
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