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Paper Information

Title: 

INCREASE OF WATER USE EFFICIENCY IN LIMITATIONS OF WATER QUANTITY AND QUALITY CONDITIONS IN DRY REGIONS

Type: PAPER
Author(s): SHAHIDI A.,KASHKULI H.A.,ZAMANI G.R.,KHATAMINEJAD S.A.
 
 
 
Name of Seminar: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WATER CRISIS
Type of Seminar:  CONFERENCE
Sponsor:  zabol University
Date:  2009Volume 1
 
 
Abstract: 

DROUGHT AND WATER CRISIS (ESPECIALLY IN RESENT YEARS) HAS COVERED A VAST PART OF IRAN AND CAUSED A GREAT CONCERN AMONG THE FARMERS AND OFFICIALS. IN ORDER TO SOLVE THIS PROBLEM, FEW STRATEGIES CAN BE SUGGESTED. TAKING LONG-TERM DECISION FOR INCREASING SHOULD THE EFFICINCY OF IRRIGATION IS STRONGLY SUGGESTED. AT THE SAME TIME WAYS IN WHICH THE CUSTOMIZED IRRIGATION IS OPTIMIZED MUST BE STUDIED. HENCE, THIS RESEARCH INTENDS TO INVESTIGATE THE PRODUCTION OF WHEAT CULTIVARS (GHODS & ROSHAN) IN SALINITY AND DEFICIT IRRIGATION CONDITIONS, THE DETERMINATION OF WATER-SALINITY OPTIMUM PRODUCTION, ITS FUNCTION FOR WHEAT VARIETIES, OBTAINING WATER USE EFFICIENCY UNDER THESE CONDITIONS BY MEANS OF PRODUCTION ASSESSMENT INDICATORS, AND PROVIDING ISO-YIELD CURVES FOR WHEAT VARIETIES, IN ORDER TO APPLY FOR IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMING IN SOUTHERN KHORASAN CARRIED OUT IN FARMING YEARS 2005-2006. THE RESEARCH PROGRAM CONSISTS OF THREE LEVELS OF THE SALINITY OF IRRIGATION WATER (S1, S2, S3 RESPECTIVELY 1.4, 4.5, 9.6 DS/M), TWO WHEAT VARIETIES (GHODS & ROSHAN) AND FOUR LEVELS OF IRRIGATION WATER (I1, I2, I3, I4 RESPECTIVELY 50, 75, 100, 125 % OF WATER REQUIREMENT). THE EXPERIMENT HAD THREE REPLICATIONS ACCORDING TO A RANDOMIZED COMPLETE BLOCK DESIGN WITH SPLIT PLOT LAYOUT (FACTORIAL FORM), WHICH CONSIDERED WATER QUALITY AS MAIN PLOT AND WATER QUANTITY AS SUB PLOT. THE RESULT SHOWED THAT, INCREASE OF SALINITY FOR BOTH CULTIVARS OF WHEAT CAUSES THE REDUCTION OF RELATIVE WUE. IN ALL LEVELS OF DIFFERENT TREATMENT THE WUE FOR ROSHAN WHEAT IS MORE THAN OF GHODS WHEAT. THE EFFECT OF WATER STRESS ON ALTERATIONS OF WUE IS THAT THE TREATMENTS OF MAXIMUM WATER STRESS (I1 WITH 50 PERCENT OF PLANT WATER REQUIREMENT) THE WUE IS MINIMAL, BUT IN TREATMENT I2 (WITH 75 PERCENT OF PLANT WATER REQUIREMENT) THE AMOUNT OF WATER IN ALL TREATMENT IS IN IT PEAK LEVEL. THE CAUSES LOW WUE (37.8 %) IN I1 WATER TREATMENT IN COMPARISON WITH I2, IS THAT, THE WATER STRESS IN I1 TREATMENT IS SO HIGH, WHICH PLANT ARE UNABLE TO GROW NORMALLY, AND THEREFORE THE YIELD DEDUCTED HIGHLY AND SINCE THE YIELD IS PROPORTIONATE TO WUE, THEREFORE IT IS CAUSES THE HIGH REDUCTION IN WUE IN I1 TREATMENT INSTEAD OF I2. THE S1I2 TREATMENT SHOWED THAT IT HAS THE MOST WUE FOR ROSHAN AND GHODS CULTIVARS OF WHEAT WAS EQUAL TO 6.01 AND 6.46 KG/HA/MM AND SINCE THE I2 TREATMENT IS A WATER STRESS TREATMENT, WE CAN REACH THE CONCLUSION THAT THE WUE IN TENSION TREATMENT AT LEVEL OF 75 % OF PLANT WATER REQUIREMENT IS HIGHER THAN THE CASES THAT WHICH THEIR APPLIED WATER IS HIGHER. THE RESULT ALSO SHOWED THAT, WHAT EVER THE APPLIED WATER (RAINFALL+IRRIGATION) IS LOWER, THE POTENTIAL OF APPLICATION OF WATER BY PLANT INCREASES AND THIS IS THE RELATION OF HIGH WUE IN TREATMENTS. FOR REDUCTION OF ANY AMOUNT OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATION CONSUMPTIVE USE OF PLANTS AND ITS EFFECTS YIELD REDUCTION IN GHODS WHEAT IS MORE THAN THAT FOR ROSHAN WHEAT AND THIS SHOWS THAT THE SENSITIVITY IN WATER STRESS OF GHODS WHEAT IS MORE THAN ROSHAN WHEAT.

 
Keyword(s): WATER USE EFFICIENCY, SALINITY, DEFICIT IRRIGATION, WHEAT, BIRJAND
 
 
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