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Paper Information

Title: 

FINDINGS OF METABOLIC SYNDROME STUDY OF MALAYSIA (MSSM)

Type: PAPER
Author(s): KAMARUDDIN NOURAZIM*
 
 *NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MALAYSIA , KUALA LUMPUR
 
Name of Seminar: INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF METABOLIC SYNDROME, OBESITY & DIABETES
Type of Seminar:  CONGRESS
Sponsor: 
Date:  2010Volume 2
 
 
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: METABOLIC SYNDROME COMPRISES OF A CONSTELLATION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS, INCLUDING ABDOMINAL ADIPOSITY, ABNORMAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE, DYSLIPIDAEMIA AND HYPERTENSION. THE MAIN PATHOLOGICAL ABNORMALITY IN METABOLIC SYNDROME IS BELIEVED TO BE INSULIN RESISTANCE. OVER THE LAST DECADE, MALAYSIA HAS EXPERIENCED A MARKED ESCALATION IN THE PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AND DIABETES. THE PREVALENCE OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY IN ADULTS HAS RISEN FROM 24% IN 1996 TO 44% IN 2006 WHILE THAT OF DIABETES HAS RISEN FROM 8.3% TO 14.9% AMONG THOSE ABOVE 30 YEARS OLD. DESPITE THIS, THERE HAS NOT BEEN ANY MAJOR STUDY TO LOOK AT THE PREVALENCE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME PER SE IN MALAYSIA.
METHODS: BETWEEN 2007 TO 2008, THE MINISTRY OF HEALTH, MALAYSIA THROUGH ITS E-HEALTH INITIATIVE FUNDED THE METABOLIC SYNDROME STUDY OF MALAYSIA (MSSM) WHICH UTILISED A MULTISTAGED SAMPLING PROCEDURE TO RANDOMLY SCREEN (WITH ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST) 4341 ADULTS BETWEEN THE AGES OF 18 TO 70 YEARS OLD THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY. FIVE MAJOR AREAS WERE SELECTED BASED ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL AS WELL AS ETHNIC COMPOSITION OF THE COUNTRY. THESE WERE FURTHER DIVIDED INTO URBAN AND RURAL AREAS RESPECTIVELY. THE CRITERIA USED TO DEFINE METABOLIC SYNDROME WAS BASED ON THE MODIFIED ASIAN NCEP (ATP III) 2004 CLASSIFICATION.
RESULTS: THE PREVALENCE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME WAS 31.7% (95% CI, 30.3-33.1). IT WAS HIGHER IN FEMALES AT 33.1% (95% CI, 31.3 -34.8) COMPARED TO MALES AT 29.2% (95% CI, 26.7- 31.5). THE PREVALENCE IN URBAN AREAS RANGED FROM 22.2% (95% CI, 18.0-26.4) IN KOTA KINABALU TO 36.7% (95% CI, 32.8- 40.7) IN JOHOR BHARU. WHILE IN THE RURAL AREAS IT RANGED FROM 15.8% (95% CI, 12.0-19.6) IN LAHAD DATU, SABAH TO 37.3% (95% CI, 33.1-41.7) IN KUALA SELANGOR, AN HOUR. S DRIVE FROM THE CAPITAL CITY OF KUALA LUMPUR. THE PREVALENCE INCREASED FROM 13.0% (95% CI, 11.1-14.9) IN THOSE BELOW 40 YEARS OLD TO 21.9% (95% CI, 26.5-31.8) IN THOSE BETWEEN 40 TO 49 YEARS OLD, 41.9% (95% CI, 38.9-45.0) IN THOSE BETWEEN 50-59 YEARS OLD AND 47.3% (95% CI, 44.1-50.4) AMONG THOSE ABOVE 60 YEARS OLD. AMONG THE THREE MAJOR ETHNIC GROUPS IN THE COUNTRY, INDIAN WAS THE HIGHEST AT 42.7% (95% CI, 37.7-47.7) FOLLOWED BY MALAYS AT 33.5% (95% CI, 31.7-35.3) AND CHINESE AT 31.6% (95% CI, 28.0-35.3).
IN TERMS OF THE PREVALENCE OF THE VARIOUS COMPONENTS OF THE METABOLIC SYNDROME, HYPERTENSION WAS 52.3% (95% CI, 50.8-53.3), HIGH TRIGLYCERIDE 37.1% (95% CI, 35.7-38.5), IMPAIRED FASTING GLUCOSE 36.4% (95% CI, 35.0-37.8), INCREASED WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE WAS 30.9% (95% CI, 29.5-32.3) AND LOW HDL CHOLESTEROL 28.3% (95% CI, 27.0-29.7).
CONCLUSION: THE PREVALENCE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN MALAYSIA IS HIGHER COMPARED TO THE NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES OF SOUTH EAST ASIA WHICH HAVE SIMILAR DEMOGRAPHIC AND ECONOMIC STATURES. THE PRECISE REASONS BEHIND THIS MARKED INCREASE IN METABOLIC SYNDROME HAVE TO BE ELUCIDATED BEFORE ANY EFFECTIVE MEASURES CAN BE UNDERTAKEN.

 
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