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Paper Information

Title: 

CELLULAR & MOLECULAR BASIS OF METABOLIC SYNDROME

Type: PAPER
Author(s): KAMARUDDIN NOURAZIM*
 
 *NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MALAYSIA , KUALA LUMPUR
 
Name of Seminar: INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF METABOLIC SYNDROME, OBESITY & DIABETES
Type of Seminar:  CONGRESS
Sponsor: 
Date:  2010Volume 2
 
 
Abstract: 

THE METABOLIC SYNDROME IS A MULTI-FACET CONDITION CHARACTERISED BY VISCERAL ADIPOSITY, INSULIN RESISTANCE, DYSLIPIDAEMIA, AND HYPERTENSION, ALL OF WHICH CONTRIBUTES TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-GRADE INFLAMMATORY STATE, ATHEROSCLEROSIS AND ABNORMAL GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE. VARIOUS HYPOTHESES HAD BEEN PUT FORWARD INCLUDING THRIFTY GENES, APPETITE CONTROL INVOLVING THE LIMBIC-HYPOTHALAMIC SYSTEM AND ALTERED HOMEOSTATIC MECHANISMS TO EXPLAIN THE INTERACTION BETWEEN GENETIC, INTRAUTERINE AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS THAT LEAD TO THE SYNDROME. HOWEVER, INSULIN RESISTANCE REMAINS THE UNIFYING FACTOR UNDERLYING ALL THE CLUSTERS OF THE METABOLIC SYNDROME.
EVEN THOUGH EXISTING CLINICAL, EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA SUPPORT THE ROLE OF INSULIN RESISTANCE AS AN IMPORTANT AETIOLOGIC COMPONENT OF THIS SYNDROME, CURRENT EVIDENCE SUGGEST THAT NEUROHORMONAL MECHANISMS, INCLUDING AN ENDOCRINE FUNCTION OF ADIPOCYTES HAS A FUNDAMENTAL ROLE TO PLAY. THIS IS SUPPORTED BY THE STRONG RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CENTRAL ADIPOSITY AND ALL THE COMPONENTS OF THE SYNDROME, UNLIKE THE INCONSISTENT ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE SYNDROME AND THE MARKERS OF INSULIN RESISTANCE.
TRADITIONALLY, ADIPOCYTES STORE EXCESS CALORIES AS TRIGLYCERIDE IN FAT PARTICLES, THUS ACTING AS ENERGY WAREHOUSES. OF LATE ADIPOCYTES HAVE RECENTLY BEEN FOUND TO REGULATE METABOLIC FUNCTION BY PRODUCING A WHOLE RANGE OF CYTOKINES, APTLY NAMED ADIPOCYTOKINES. WHILE SOME ADIPOCYTOKINES, SUCH AS TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA AND RESISTIN INDUCE INSULIN RESISTANCE, ADIPONECTIN ON THE OTHER HAND IS AN ADIPOCYTOKINE THAT HAS ANTI-DIABETIC AND ANTI-ATHEROGENIC PROPERTIES. ANOTHER VISCERAL FAT-DERIVED ADIPOCYTOKINE, VISFATIN WAS IDENTIFIED RECENTLY WITH INSULIN-LIKE ACTIVITIES. THUS, ADIPOCYTES PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE REGULATION OF ENERGY METABOLISM AND IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF METABOLIC SYNDROME. IN ADDITION TO VISCERAL ADIPOCYTES, INCREASED FREE FATTY ACIDS AND LIPID ACCUMULATION IN CERTAIN ORGANS ALSO CONTRIBUTES TO INSULIN RESISTANCE.

 
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