Paper Information

Title: 

FACTORS EFFECTING ON CADMIUM PHYTOREMEDIATION FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS

Type: PAPER
Author(s): KASRAEIAN ALI,OLIAEI HAMID REZA,ABD ALAZIMI HADI
 
 
 
Name of Seminar: HAMAYESHE MANTAGHEI KARBORD FANAVARIHAYE NOVIN DAR KESHAVARZI
Type of Seminar:  CONGRESS
Sponsor:  Islamic Azad University, Shiraz
Date:  2008Volume 1
 
 
Abstract: 

CADMIUM (CD) IS A HEAVY METAL NATURALLY PRESENT IN SOIL AT CONCENTRATIONS OF SLIGHTLY MORE THAN 1 MG KG-1. NOT ONLY IS IT NON-ESSENTIAL FOR LIFE, IT IS HIGHLY TOXIC TO MOST ORGANISMS, HAVING A TOXICITY 2-20 TIMES HIGHER THAN MANY OTHER HEAVY METALS. IT IS THEREFORE CONSIDERED A VERY SERIOUS POLLUTANT. CD CONTENT IN SOIL HAS BEEN DRAMATICALLY INCREASED FROM ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES INCLUDING SMELTERS AND AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS OF FERTILIZER AND SEWAGE SLUDGE. SINCE CD IN SOIL IS AVAILABLE FOR PLANT UPTAKE AND SUBSEQUENT HUMAN UPTAKE, CD IN THE ENVIRONMENT POSES A SIGNIFICANT HEALTH RISK. SINCE CD POSES A SERIOUS HEALTH RISK TO LIVING ORGANISMS, AND SINCE IT CAN BE EASILY INCORPORATED INTO THE HUMAN FOOD CHAIN THROUGH UPTAKE BY AGRONOMIC CROPS OR THROUGH GRAZING OF CONTAMINATED PLANTS BY HERBIVORES, MUCH RESEARCH HAS CENTERED ON HOW TO EITHER CLEAN UP CD IN SOIL TO ELIMINATE THE THREAT, OR TO REDUCE THE AVAILABILITY OF CD IN SOIL SO THAT THE RISK OF IT BEING INCORPORATED INTO THE FOOD CHAIN IS REDUCED. TRADITIONAL METHODS OF CLEANING, OR REMEDIATING, AREAS CONTAMINATED WITH HEAVY METALS SUCH AS CD MOST OFTEN INCLUDE SOME KIND OF EXCAVATION AND RELOCATION OF THE CONTAMINATED SOIL TO A HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL. ANOTHER TRADITIONAL APPROACH IS TO CAP THE POLLUTED AREA WITH AN IMPERMEABLE SOIL AND/OR CONCRETE LAYER TO PREVENT LEACHING OF THE CONTAMINANT INTO GROUNDWATER BY RAINFALL MIGRATING THROUGH THE SOIL, AND TO PREVENT ANY LIVING THING FROM COMING INTO CONTACT WITH THE POLLUTANT. A MORE RECENT APPROACH TO REMEDIATING CONTAMINATED SITES IS CALLED PHYTOREMEDIATION, A TERM WHICH DESCRIBES THE USE OF PLANTS TO CLEAN UP CONTAMINANTS FROM A SUBSTRATE, WHETHER IT BE SOIL, AIR OR WATER. THE EFFICACY OF PHYTOREMEDIATION AS A VIABLE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY IS STILL BEING EXPLORED, YET SO FAR THE RESULTS ARE POSITIVE. IN PHYTOREMEDIATION, PLANTS EXTRACTS CD FROM THE SOIL AND TRANSPORT IT VIA THE XYLEM INTO SHOOTS AND LEAVES WHERE IT CAN ACCUMULATE. IT HAS BEEN SHOWN THAT POLLUTANTS CAN BE REMOVED FROM A CONTAMINATED SITE BY HARVESTING THE PLANT BIOMASS CONTAINING THE POLLUTANT. THERE ARE MANY SOIL FACTORS THAT EFFECT ON PHYTOREMEDIATION AND IMPROVE IT. THE MOST IMPORTANT OF THESE FACTORS ARE SOIL PH, CEC, NATURAL AND SYNTHSISED CHELATING MATERIALS AND FERTILIZERS. IN THIS PAPER WE TRIED TO EXPLAIN SOME OF THESE FACTORS.

 
Keyword(s): PHYTOREMEDIATION, CADMIUM, CONTAMINATED SOILS
 
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