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Paper Information

Title: 

CO-OCCURRENCE OF AFLATOXINS B1, B2, G1, G2, FUMONISIN B1 AND ZEARALENONE IN IRANIAN MAIZE

Type: SPEECH
Author(s): HADIANI MOHAMMAD RASOUL*,ESKANDARI P.,AMIR AHMADI M.,YAZDANPANAH H.
 
 *FOOD AND DRUG CONTROL LABORATORIES, MINISTRY OF HEALTH, TEHRAN, IRAN
 
Name of Seminar: IRANIAN CONGRESS OF TOXICOLOGY
Type of Seminar:  CONGRESS
Sponsor:  SOCIETY OF TOXICOLOGY
Date:  2004Volume 8
 
 
Abstract: 

 Aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone are three groups of the most toxic and prevalent mycotoxins in food safety. Aflatoxins, particularly aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been the most regulated mycotoxin world-wide because of their carcinogenic effects. Fumonisins have been implicated in esophageal cancer in Africa and China and evidences of carcinogenicity of fumonisin B1 (FB1) have been reported in experimental animals. Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic mycotoxin that can cause severe reproductive problems, especially in swine and dairy cows. Corn is a cereal which has high capacity for mycotoxin contamination. Co-occurrence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, fumonisin B1 and zearalenone has been studied in some countries. With aim of conducting a similar study in Iran, 40 pre-harvested corn samples were collected from fields of Mazandaran province in September 2000. Samples were analyzed by an EU–validated method for aflatoxins and an AOAC- validated method for fumonisin B1 and zearalenone. Aflatoxins and fumonisin were purified with immunoaffinity columns and quantified by HPLC. Also zearalenone was purified with column chromatography and quantified with TLC-Densitometry. Results showed that frequency of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, fumonisin B1 and zearalenone are 66%, 54%, 3%, 3%, 97% and 7.5%, respectively. The ranges for these mycotoxins in the samples were AFB1: Nd-77.8ppb with a mean of 9.5 ppb, AFB2: Nd-11 ppb with a mean of 1.7 ppb, fumonisin B1: Nd-13000 ppb with a mean of 5670 ppb and ZEA: Nd-212 ppb with a mean of 140ppb. These amounts can be compared with the national standards for the corn used for human consumption which has accepted maximum limits of 5, 1000 and 200 ppb for aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and zearalenone, respectively. The co-occurrence of the two carcinogenic mycotoxins aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 was observed in 96% of the aflatoxin-contaminated samples. Co-occurrence of aflatoxin B1: zearalenone: fumonisin B1 and aflatoxin B1: aflatoxin B2: fumonisin B1 were found in 7.5% and 45% of the samples, respectively. Regarding the high consumption of maize as commercial products, poultry and livestock feeding in Iran, it is necessary to control internal production and imported maize for mycotoxin contamination.

 
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