Paper Information

Title: 

AIR POLLUTION AND RESPIRATORY ALLERGY

Type: PAPER
Author(s): SALVI S.D.*
 
 *DIRECTOR, CHEST RESEARCH FOUNDATION, PUNE, INDIA
 
Name of Seminar: BIENNIAL CONGRESS ON IMMUNOLOGY, ASTHMA AND ALLERGY
Type of Seminar:  CONGRESS
Sponsor:  IRAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES AND HEALTH SERVICES
Date:  2007Volume 6
 
 
Abstract: 

The prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders such as allergic rhinitis and asthma has increased markedly over the last few decades all over the world. Air pollution arising from motor vehicles, industrial sources and also from indoor sources such as that emitted during cooking has been implicated to be one of the most important causes for this sudden and sharp rise in allergic disorders. Epidemiological studies have shown a consistent and significant association between ambient levels of various air pollutants, in particular, oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulphur, ozone and particulate matter, and prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma both in children and adults, both in prospective and cross-sectional studies. Exposure chamber studies of human volunteers exposed to various air pollutants have revealed increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms and decrements in lung function even during short periods of exposure. Biopsy studies from the nose and bronchial tissue following exposure to diesel exhaust and other pollutants have shown significant increase in ability to generate allergen-specific IgE, increased production of various pro-inflammatory mediators such as histamine, fibronectin, and increased production of various cytokines including IL-8, GRO-alpha, GM-CSF and TNF-alpha. This is associated with increased expression of capillary adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and increased cell numbers of mast cells, neutrophils and eosinophils. The airway epithelium is the major cellular sources of these inflammatory mediators. Air pollutants generate reactive oxygen species that drive the molecular machinery inside the cells to generate allergic inflammatory responses.

 
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