Paper Information

Title: 

DETERMINATION OF LEAD AND CADMIUM IN RICE CONSUMED IN TEHRAN

Type: SPEECH
Author(s): KHOSROUKHAVAR R.,ZAMANIAN F.,MAZAHERION M.,HADIANI MOHAMMAD RASOUL
 
 
 
Name of Seminar: IRANIAN CONGRESS OF TOXICOLOGY
Type of Seminar:  CONGRESS
Sponsor:  SOCIETY OF TOXICOLOGY
Date:  2004Volume 8
 
 
Abstract: 

CEREALS ARE IMPORTANT AND CHEAP FOOD SOURCES. AMONG THEM, RICE IS A STAPLE FOOD FOR THE IRANIAN FAMILIES THAT ITS HIGH CONSUMPTION HAS CAUSED ITS HIGH PRODUCTION AND IMPORTATION. RICE IS CONTAMINATED BY DIFFERENT CONTAMINANTS SUCH AS HEAVY METALS MAINLY LEAD AND CADMIUM. BECAUSE OF THE CHRONIC TOXICITY OF THESE METALS, THEIR LEVELS MUST BE ALWAYS LIMITED. AS A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF SUCH CONTAMINANTS, 30 DIFFERENT RICE SAMPLES WERE RANDOMLY COLLECTED FROM TEHRAN IN AUTUMN 2002. THE SAMPLES WERE ANALYZED FOR THEIR LEAD AND CADMIUM CONTENTS USING AOAC (1985) METHOD. THE METHOD HAVE BEEN DESIGNED BASED ON CHELATING HEAVY METALS BY APDC AND EXTRACTING BY N-BUTYL ACETATE IN CONSTANT PH (5.4) AND DETERMINATION BY FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER. DATA REVEALED THAT THE RANGE OF LEAD CONTAMINATION IN RICE SAMPLES WAS 11 - 348PPB WITH A MEAN OF 63.5PPB AND CADMIUM CONCENTRATION WAS IN THE RANGE OF 2 - 40.3PPB WITH A MEAN OF 11.5PPB. THE METHOD ACCURACY WAS APPROVED BY RECOVERY TESTS. MEAN OF LEAD AND CADMIUM CONCENTRATION IN RICE SAMPLES WERE LESS THAN CODEX 2001 LIMITS (200PPB FOR LEAD AND 100PPB FOR CADMIUM IN CEREALS). ONLY ONE SAMPLE (348PPB) HAD LEAD CONCENTRATION MORE THAN MENTIONED LIMIT. SINCE CONSUMPTION OF RICE AND OTHER FOODSTUFFS CONTAMINATED BY HEAVY METALS CAN LEAD TO THEIR ACCUMULATION AND CHRONIC FOOD TOXICITY IN HUMANS, IT IS NECESSARY TO HAVE STRICT CONTROL OVER THE PRODUCED RICE IN DIFFERENT AREAS OF IRAN AND ALSO THE IMPORTED RICE. APPROVAL OF A NATIONAL STANDARD FOR HEAVY METALS IN RICE AND OTHER CEREALS IS RECOMMENDED.

 
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