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Paper Information

Journal:   PAZHOHESH-HA-YE BASTANSHENASI IRAN   fall 2017 , Volume 7 , Number 14 ; Page(s) 221 To 240.

Interaction by the Architecture of the Mosque Qajar Period Imported West (Case Study of Tehran Mosque Sepah Salar)

Author(s):  SAJADZADEH HASAN*, daryaei rahmat, ebrahimi mohammad hosein, Mesri sara
* bu Ali Sina University, Department of Urban Development
During the age of Ghajar, some of the western architecture’ s elements were imported to Iranian architecture. At first, these elements influenced the imperial and aristocratic constructions and then they moved to public places, residential buildings and the religious constructions. Before the time that this technique comes to Iran, our architecture language was not changed yet. Up to those years the changes were just to repeat some elements or getting ideas from the constructions and make a new one in a traditional style. So the entrance of these elements and their combination with the traditional Iranian architecture made a different style and new buildings were made based on this style. one of these buildings is the mosque and school of Sepah Salar (Martyred Motahhari). It’ s the first and the largest mosque and school in Tehran and it’ s the nearest construction to the style of Istanbul’ s mosques in this paper, Historic architecture of mosques in different periods studied, the architectural features European architecture so the course will examine the impact of Qajar Iran. The research method is an analytic method and the information is collected through the libraries and fields. The findings show the evolutionary procedure of the components. Sepahsalar mosque and school are two buildings from Ghajar dynasty which changed compared with other buildings that built before them. Mirza Hosseein Khan Sepahsalar built these school and mosque which followed this idea from presented in Ottoman embassy. These buildings are the symbols of integration of Iranian and Western architecture which shows priority of Iranian architect. When we look to Sepahsalar mosque, Ottoman architecture style is clear. The structure of these buildings inspired of Safavi and Teymoori dynast which mixed by western architect style. This impact can be found in mosque plan, under the dome, the dome is located on the bald half, lots of minarets, the clock tower, the arches in the faç ade, carved on the base of the minarets which designed with flowers and plants, Kofi line used in dome tiles and Building facades which are look like Ottoman dynasty. In addition, we can see these Ottoman architecture styles in designing of building faced, not in structure of buildings. These buildings built by Islamic-Iranian architect style which designed by European style. The method of constructing this building on the half-bones and placing the dome in the dome can be considered an adaptation of the Ottoman architecture and the lightest dome made by the mosques until that time. The most important interaction is in the mosque dome construction technique. This technique can also be seen in the Ottoman architecture. In the bald structure, the dome is placed on the second dome, which is actually larger than the dome, and the upper part and the four parts along the edge of the dome are removed from it. These four components are in the form of four arcs whose surface joins together and form a square. The structure of the bald spine, with its heavy grip on the walls and preventing it from entering the wall itself, makes it possible to create a wide interior space such as the inner space of Ayasofia and the Sepehsalar Mosque. This method of constructing a dome with half baldness was never used prior to the construction of Aesophia. The half-bones not only control the beauty of the dome space, but also control the lateral forces of the dome, and effectively transmit the dome’ s weight downwards. With the above interpretations, the impact on the construction of the dome with the baldness method and its localization can be considered as an achievement in the architecture of the Qajar period. So, with the influence of the Sepahsalar mosque from western architecture and the combination of different architectural elements, this mosque can be considered as a link style.
Keyword(s): Age of Ghajar,Architectural Elements,Traditional Architecture,Western Architecture,SepahSalar Mosque
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