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Paper Information

Journal:   PAZHOHESH-HA-YE BASTANSHENASI IRAN   winter 2019 , Volume 8 , Number 19 ; Page(s) 27 To 46.

Hormangan Site: A Neolithic Site in the Bavanat River Basin, Iran

Author(s):  Khanipoor morteza, Niknami Kamalodin
The periods from 6300 until 5600 B. C. E in Fars region are known as the Mushki and Jari periods. The architectural remains as well as geometric stone tools, wild animals’ bones, particularly horses, are all indicating the existence of a seasonal settlement based on hunting in Tol-e Mushki which is transformed into a sedentary settlement with a distinct type of architecture and a subsistence based on agriculture in Tol-e Jari B. The distinct cultural phenomenon probably linked to Mushki period could have been caused by a sudden climate change. It is suggested that the weather became cold and dry for centuries, until around 6200 B. C. E when the conditions again improved. Furthermore, these climate changes have had direct influences on socioeconomic strategies of Neolithic societies in the Fars. However, the relationship between culture and climate is only one of the possible explanations for the observed cultural changes; more studies are needed. The majority of archeologists believe that severe climate changes following the 8. 2 ka Event forced Neolithic societies to adapt to new conditions. It is possible that some of them migrated to regions with more tolerable conditions while others found alternative survival strategies such as hunting or food collecting instead of cultivating. Intermountain valleys in Fars region are required to be studied precisely and extensively in order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of this period. During a survey by the authors in 2015 in the Bavanat River Basin in northeastern Fars, the most prominent Neolithic occupation of the region was identified in Hormangan, a site first excavated in 2016. The excavation sought to understand cultural characteristics, investigate subsistence strategy according to studies based on vegetal and bone finds and regional and intraregional interactions. There is an attempt in this paper to introduce the findings of the first excavation season, and then define chronological importance of the Neolithic site in the province. There were two recognized settlement phases revealed through the excavations which show migration from the other valleys to the Bavanat region during latter half of the 7th millennium, due to climatic changes.
Keyword(s): Bananat River Basin,Neolithic Period,Mushki Period,Hunting Societies
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