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Paper Information

Journal:   PAZHOHESH-HA-YE BASTANSHENASI IRAN   summer 2017 , Volume 7 , Number 13 ; Page(s) 189 To 206.

Studying and Analyzing the Islamic Potteries from Underground Troglodytic Architecture Complex at Samen, Malayer

Troglodytic complex of Samen is located under the same city’ s urban area, southeast of Hamadan, 15 Km to southwest of Malayer, 34° 12’ 34. 62’ ’ longitude and 48° 42’ 12. 96’ ’ latitude and at 1869 m altitude above sea. Being of Malayer suburbs, Samen is located at route among Malayer, Brujerd, and Nahavand where is counted climatically mountainous. Water sources of the region are seasonal rivers, springs, and several Qantas. Local people knew of such under-ground structure; however, for developments and urbanization there was no possibility for lo-cals to access to these spaces until recent earthen works, which accidentally uncovered parts of the structure in 2004. Four seasons of investigation including recognition, clearance, documen-tation, and excavation conducted during 2007, 2008, 2011, and 2012 under Ali Khaksari super-vision. The complex is consisted of underground architectural spaces where is structured Trog-lodytic ally under urban areas at granite rocks. Considering the complex structure that is differ-ent from the other archaeological site, resulted in distinct excavating method. Through excavat-ing, recovered data must be documented carefully; excavators should not dig for architecture or feature just the same as historical mounds. Topography was highly considered through con-struction activities, where vaulted ceilings were raised and storied. There have been 50 recov-ered architectural spaces at eight underground workshops within four archaeological excavation seasons. At 2m-8m depth, the spaces were made troglodytic ally that consisted of chambers and halls interconnected by openings, thresholds, and corridors. Dimensionally varied, they have various features including artificial floors, carved floors in rocks, thresholds, platforms, niches, and holes that were used for oil lamps. Regarding Samen structure and its differences with the other historic and ancient sites, excavating method should be different from the other sites ex-cavating methods. However, excavators do not follow structural remains or special architectur-al features in historic strata and regard significantly thorough documentation of findings from excavation. After recognizing underground workshops and spaces, every chamber was cleared and findings were recorded. At the same time, it was completely documented and planned con-sidering spatial features. Archaeological excavations started after identification, clearance, and documentation of underground spaces. One of the most valuable archaeological data, pottery is regarded culturally significant; because of numerous amounts of manufacturing and durability susceptible to various innovations and transformations through times. Underground troglodytic architecture complex at Samen, Malayer, regarding cultural data especially recovered potteries, is of the characteristic and unique sites with varieties of Islamic potteries (in present paper the authors only discussed to the Islamic pottery of Samen complex). The authors involve in inves-tigating various types of recovered potsherds through four seasons of archaeological research-es, then analyzing them for technics, forms, and decorations. Methodologically, the research is based on data from archaeological excavations and bibliographical investigations. Main goal of this research are introduction, survey and analysis pottery of this complex include technic, type and decorated. In this paper, authors try to identify import or local pottery making, survey con-nection with other produce center and chronology of potteries. Based on result, the potteries of this site are two group glaze and without glazes. The without glaze are eight and glaze pottery include a glaze pottery, glaze pottery whit add motif; inlaid potteries; Sgraffito ceramics; painting on glaze (Minai); painting under glaze (Ghalam Meshki); anthropomorphic and zoo-morphic Stylistic designs; blue and white; and lusterware which can be dated to middle and late Islamic centuries and imported potteries. The pottery of this site compare with pottery of other Islamic site while this issue probably results of vast connection other Islamic land in medieval Islamic period.
Keyword(s): Malayer,Samen,Troglodytic Architecture,Islamic Pottery,Ghalam Meshki,Blue and White
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