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Paper Information

Journal:   PAZHOHESH-HA-YE BASTANSHENASI IRAN   summer 2018 , Volume 8 , Number 17 ; Page(s) 85 To 104.

An Investigation of the Structure and Construction Method of Copper Alloys Pins Excavated from the West Chia Sabz, Lorestan Province

Author(s):  safaie ghalati mahshid, BAKHSHANDEHFARD HAMID REZA, HESARI MORTEZA
Historical, cultural, and archaeological sites reveal manifestations of the ancient man’ s interactions with the surrounding world from ancient ages until the present. Among the most important sets of archaeological data with the highest information about the spiritual aspects of our ancestor’ s cultures, there are cemeteries and related remains of the burial rituals. an important portion of these remains pertaining to these cultural and ritual heritage are metal objects dated back to the Iron Age. As the ornamental metal objects integrated to the life and rituals of ancient man, these objects were buried alongside the dead bodies; hence, the grave and the grave findings can be considered as a live image of life’ s special moments of past societies. Throughout the vicissitudes of the history of Iranian plateau, Central Zagros, especially Lorestan, has played an important role in the development of metallurgy technology. The “ Western Chia-Sabz” cemetery located in the western plains of “ Pish-Kuh” , i. e. the present Lorestan province, is one of these important ancient sites referring to the Iron Age. This area is more than 3 acres, and is gained access through the dirt road of Ramavand from the north and faces Vyzenhar heights, and the Neolithic site of East ChiaSabz is located on its east side. The southern and western sides of the area border the steep slopes of the valley through which Seimare is flowing. The site has recently (in 2010) been explored and three bronze pins were found through the excavations. The pins are somehow the most interesting and also the most diverse artifacts made by the ancient residents of Lorestan region, among them, bar pins have the highest diversity. Based on the conducted historical and comparative investigations, the pins are classified in the category of “ bar pins” and their relative manufacturing date is determined between the Middle Bronze Age and Early Iron Age in the central Zagros area. Despite the particular historical importance of the ancient metal objects discovered in Lorestan, since the “ Western ChiaSabz” cemetery has just recently been discovered and explored, no independent specific structural and technological study on these metal objects via laboratory methods has been reported yet. The present study aims to introduce, describe, and present a comparative analysis of the pins founding in the “ Western ChiaSabz” cemetery. The pins were investigated technologically through the instrumental methods using SEM-EDS, AAS, radiography and metallography; Also, microscopic and macroscopic studies were conducted and their alloy type, chemical composition, and their manufacturing technique were determined. According to the results of the semi-quantitative chemical analysis, the composition used in the construction of two of the pins was a two-component copper-tin alloy, and the other one was made of copper. It was found that the two bronze pins are produced by Cu– Sn or tin bronze alloy with a variable tin content and some metallic impurities. Their inclusions are composed of copper sulfide which represents the use of the sulfide ore to make these objects. The variation of the Sn content indicates that the bronze alloy has not been made by a controlled alloying process. The varying bronze composition might have originated due to one of following processes of bronze production: (1) co-smelting copper and tin ores in crucible to produce a bronze alloy; (2) alloying by adding a variable amount of cassiterite (SnO2) to the metallic copper and melting in crucible (cementation of metallic copper with cassiterite); (3) using a complex Sn-bearing copper ore. Finally, with regard to the results of the X-rays and microstructural metallographic analysis, it seems that these pins have been made through a continuant thermal / mechanical (hammering and annealing) process.
Keyword(s): Iron Age,Western ChiaSabz,Lorestan Area,Bronze Bar Pin,SEM-EDS.Metalography
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