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Paper Information

Journal:   PAZHOHESH-HA-YE BASTANSHENASI IRAN   fall 2016 , Volume 6 , Number 11 ; Page(s) 117 To 134.

The Identification and Introduce the Bishapour – Firuz-Abad rout in the Sassanid Era and Early Islamic Period

Author(s):  NIKNAMI KAMAL ALDIN, fazel leila*
The roads are considered as the main factor of society’ s changes, the development of nations and also cultures. They are not only consider as a means transporting cargoes, but also are as a factor for replacement of cultures which further produce wealth, following the development of civilizations. The roads development is a reflection of the increase in dynamic points and causes making valuable energy to lead the movements. The existence of destroyed cities and the civilization centers or they have still continued their life on tribal road, the natural and geographical elements, the special circumstances of human life such as religious matters or need to have relationship with ethnic groups and other nations and also ancient works are considered as the main factors knowing the ancient connective roads. Kazeroon, Farashband and Firuz-Abad cities, which are located in the mountainous part of Fars are the topic of current research. Bishapour was an intersection and connective place in ancient Iran, which in one side, was connected to Mesopotamia, Susa, and Tysphoon and in another side was reached to Firuz-Abad, Istakhr and the 4th road was related to sea. The production of perfume and drugs, weaving industry and breeding silkworm were its most important industries; moreover, Shapur eateries were very famous. Here, the industrial activities and commercial exchanges has circulated over Sassanid era. By Al-e Booyeh era Bishapour was also considered as one of most important Fars weaving centers. Ardeshir khoreh is located on the end of a plain with high mountains on which a castle face to the only main and vital road. Strategically, this place has many privileges through several passages, which are limited by mountainous stockade around city, further, it reach to Kerman and Persian Gulf, Mesopotamia directly, and through Kazeroon to shiraz and Istakhr – the center of southern Iran. Due to the importance of roads and their roles in culture knowing and the development of ancient societies, the authors, have studied the connective exiles of two major cities of Sassanid era in Fars. This research was investigated Bishapour, which is located in west of Fars and also about Firuz-Abad or ancient Ardeshir Khoreh in southern Fars. This axis was studied in three parts, including Bishapour-Kazeroon axis, Kazeroon-Farashband and Farashband-Firuz-Abad. Each of these routes were divided to different branches and then formed the network of routes. According to previous researches, it seems that the connection of Bishapour and Firuz-Abad cities, was possible by these two main axis. This axis passes through the sectors of Firuz-Abad, Farashband, and Kazeroon ownerships. This axis also in its shortest form, had contained 25 passing distance and at least 7 lodges including Bishapour – Kazeroon-Famoor-Baladeh, jereh-Khaneyek and Khushab or Baladeh. Jere– Farashband – Bachoon-Firuz-Abad. Moreover, this axis in its longest form include, 30 par sang and at least 9 lodges, containing: Bishapour-Kazeroon – Famoor – jere-Baladeh or Kazeroon-Jere-Baladeh – Ghondijan – Farashband – Bachoon – Konarsiyah-Firuz-Abad. In order to know this axis, 7 Karevansaries, 14 lean-to, 3 frescos, 5 Sassanid Pahlavi inscription, 26 ponds, some graves or collection of graves, stone basins, 2 cliff water canals, 3 mosques and holy shrines with characteristics of early Islamic centuries, 40 hillocks, 23 castles, 8 surroundings, a part of stone-pavement rout, the remaining of ancient stone roads in two points, 2 bridges, 3 simple station, 2 fireplaces and 4 works with unspecified usage, were recognized. Because of its connection to sea, connection of center of 2 important furnaces in Fars, and also providing connection of Sassanid politic center in Tysphoon with religious center in Fars, this rout was important. This axis had high business, religious, army and political importance in Sassanid era
Keyword(s): Fars, Bishapour, Firuz-Abad, Sassanid Era
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