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Paper Information

Journal:   PAZHOHESH-HA-YE BASTANSHENASI IRAN   spring 2016 , Volume 6 , Number 10 #f00664; Page(s) 193 To 210.

Comparative Study on the Development of Trade Roads and the Military Fortress, Regional and Cross-Regional Trade of North-West Iran, Case Study: “ Kowsar County in Ardabil Province”

Author(s):  KHANALI HAMID*, REZALOO REZA, hemmati azandariani esmaeil
Archaeological studies of the Islamic period of Ardabil so far have been limited to a few landmark, and the southern province of Ardabil least part of these studies is devoted to. This study is the first archaeological survey conducted in this area. The present study opens a new chapter in archaeological studies of ancient Persia. This is the first study of archaeological research conducted in this region relying on two sources, including archaeological findings and historical written sources have been studied with a comparative approach, alongside factors such as geography, environmental conditions, and strategic location the region’ s political and cultural boundaries. Since this region at the junction of important areas such as the South West of the Caspian Sea (Guilan and effort), North West Central Plateau of Iran (Zanjan area) and middle stages with centers such as Ardabil and in the plains, the Magi and the Caucasus; the need to fix deficiencies archaeological research more than ever necessary. The city is the most important factor in determining the importance of transportation in the region of visibility not absent geographers and geographical books ancient name of this area was to be made publicly called anklet. Despite the strategic importance of the Kowsar County and numerous references to the role of transportation in the city during the Islamic historical texts so far no research has been done on the trade routes. In this regard, the most important of them are the numerous questions raised: 1. what archaeological evidence of the importance of this area of the Kowsar County and communication proper position there? 2. The strategic location in the commercial ways and possibilities of the way Kowsar County what? 3. Where the Castle Firozabad referred to in historical texts and site selection with regard to what it was? 4. Qabaq role in facilitating trade linkages regional and trans-regional Firozabad Castle What? The research method is descriptive-analytical and field data based on preceding studies (inspection, identification and documentation of archeology findings) collected and library studies, particularly the use of texts, historians, geographer’ s Islamic period have been used to complete studies. Azerbaijan region due to altitude and numerous mountain ranges on one side, and having seasonal and permanent rivers and valleys on the other side, including the regions that needed to build bridges to facilitate the transport goods and passengers. The most important ways that are identified in the region, is the cross-border road of Caucasus and two track roads of Guilan and Azerbaijan. The study of texts and archaeological findings show “ Qabaq qala Firouz Abad” is the main military fortress of the region. The fortress has provided with security necessary Basis establishing several between-road facilities in this city. And thereby, has facilitated cross-regional business communications and has increased its credit. Site Selection of fortified fortresses in regions that are in a strategic position, On the one hand, retains the retail property (intra-regional)And on the other hand, with creating secure trade routes has protected national interests and macro-property (Extra-regional). In this paper, the authors relying on a comparative study of texts and archaeological findings of the region examine the effect of strategic location on the forming of the trade routes and between-road Facilities in this city. The main achievements of the current research is the identification of a trade route (road Caucasus) And three-way roads (between Azerbaijan and Guilan) and between-road-facilities, associated with them as: the Bridge” Qizkurposi” , resorts of ” Ghosh Qayasi” , the Inns “ Arpa chai” and “ Shah Abbasi” and several show-the-way signs. The present results show that the pattern of distribution of the Islamic period in question, Influenced by geography, environmental and micro and macro territorial sovereignty.
Keyword(s): Ardabil Province,Kowsar County,Trade Roads,Military Fortress
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