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Paper Information

Journal:   HORTICULTURAL PLANT NUTRITION   fall 2018-winter 2019 , Volume 1 , Number 2 ; Page(s) 25 To 36.

Study of the effects of cadmium and vermicompost on some growth parameters of spinach (Spinacea oleracea L. )

Author(s):  Abdoosi Samaneh*
* Department of Soil Science of Agriculture Collage, Karaj Azad University, Karaj, Iran
Introduction: Cadmium is one of the most dangerous heavy metals through oxidative stress impairs the balance of plant processes and ultimately reduce nutrients in plant growth. On the other hand, this element is highly toxic for humans and cause liver and kidney diseases. Vermicompost is a source of organic matter that plays important roles in plant nutrition and decreases availability of heavy metals including cadmium in soil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium and vermicompost on morphological traits of spinach. Materials and Methods: To study the effects of different levels of cadmium and vermicompost on some morphological characteristics and nutrients in spinach, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in the research greenhouse of Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Tehran province in 1394. The experiment was carried out factorial based on randomized complete block design with six treatments and four replications. Cd factor were two levels, 0 and 20 mg per kg and vermicompost factor were in three levels as mixing five percent of vermicompost with soil and ten percent of vermicompost with soil. Shoot dry weight, number of leaves, plant height, leaf area, chlorophyll content in leaves were statistically analyzed. Results and Discussion: The results were showed that dry weight, number of leaves per plants, plant height, leaf area and chlorophyll content were significantly reduced by the use of cadmium. Also, leaf area index and chlorophyll had the most sensitivity and least sensitivity to cadmium. Data also showed that leaf area and chlorophyll index decreased 58 and 10. 6 percent in compare to control by use in the 20 mg. kg-1 in the soil, respectively. Data also demonstrated that use of vermicompost increased significantly shoot dry weight, number of leaves and leaf area. Shoot dry weight increased 49. 4 percent in compare to control by mixing of ten percent of vermicompost with soil. The results also showed that use of vermicompost in soil, decreased the negative effects of cadmium on some traits of spinach such as leaf number, plant height and leaf area. Conclusion: The results were showed that cadmium decreased the growth of the different organs in the spinach. On the other hand, due to the effects of vermicompost consumption increased shoot dry weight and nutrient uptake, and reduced the adverse effects of cadmium.
Keyword(s): Spinach,Vermicompost,Cadmium,Shoot,Dry weight
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