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Paper Information

Journal:   JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY   fall 2018-winter 2019 , Volume 8 , Number 2 #b00522; Page(s) 295 To 308.
 
Paper: 

Analysis of Microscopic Image Textural Features of Artichoke Leaf Extract Powder Produced from Vacuum Spray Drying

 
 
Author(s):  Sadeghzade Namavar s., AMIRI PARIAN J.*, AMIRI CHAYJAN R.
 
* Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
 
Abstract: 
Introduction The artichoke is part of the foods from the vegetable group that provide important nutrients like vitamin A and C, potassium and fiber which used as a food and medicine. In the pharmaceutical sector, dried extracts are used in the preparation of pills and capsules. Dried extracts can be prepared from the dehydration of a concentrated extractive solution from herbal materials (leaves, roots, seeds, etc. ), resulting in a dried powder. The spray drying is widely used in the preparation of dried powders from extracts of medicinal plants, fruit pulps. One of the newly developed spray drying techniques is an ultrasonic vacuum method, which strengths of spray drying by incorporation of ultrasonic atomizer and vacuum chamber. Nowadays, image processing has been applied to food images, as acquired by different microscopic systems, to obtain numerical data about the morphology and microstructure of the analyzed foods. For this purpose, microscopy and image processing techniques could be considered as proper tools to evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the food microstructure, making possible to carry out numerical correlations between microstructure data, as obtained from the images, and the textural properties of food powders. The textural characteristics of the obtained dried powders are determined by means of a perfect detection by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures, and analyzed with a statistical approach for image texture studies, which calls the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) technique. The object of this study was to illustrate the application of image processing to the study of texture properties from extract powder using GLCM texture analysis and some vacuum spray dryer conditions effect on the texture features of mass particles and single particle SEM images. Materials and Methods After preparing water extract solution from artichoke leaves, extracts were dried under four conditions of vacuum spray drying (according to Table 1). To study the texture of the obtained dried extract powders, different representative features are extracted from the GLCM matrix. The angular second moment (ASM), which is defined as a measure of the homogeneity of the image, the contrast parameter (CT), which represents the amount of local variations given by differences in the gray values in the image. The correlation value (CR), which is a measure of gray tone linear dependencies in the image depending on the direction of the measure (different θ s). The inverse difference moment value (IDM), which, similar to ASM, quantifies the homogeneity of the image, however, using a different equation, the entropy parameter (ET), which is a measure that is inversely related to the order given by the gray tones in the image. Rangefilt and stdfilt calculates the local range and local standard deviation of an image respectively. Entropyfilt calculates the local entropy of a grayscale image also. Parameters (ASM, CT, CR and IDM were analyzed in four directions (0º , 45º , 90º , and 135º ). Results and Discussion The results of analysis of variance showed that, the difference between the textural features of a single particle and mass particles in four different conditions vacuum spray dryer was significant statistically. Texture analysis was demonstrated that larger ASM, CR, and IDM values indicate less roughness, whereas larger CT and ET values indicate more roughness. At lower inlet temperature and higher vacuum pressure, water diffusion in the material to be slower and allowing the deformation process in the particles to be more pronounced. Consequently, it was possible to observe that generated smaller particles are rougher and less spherical. When the concentration is increased, due to the constant concentration of the additive, the ratio of excipient (lactose) to extraction decreased, as a result were formed a greater number of particles with rougher surfaces. According to these conditions, the values of CT, ET, rangefilt and stdfilt were larger while ASM, CR, and IDM values were smaller. By analyzing the effect of the angle on the oriented textural characteristics, the contrast and correlation parameter were maximum at the angles of 45 and 135 degrees and 0 and 90 degrees respectively. Conclusions Image processing could be auxiliary tools for understanding and characterizing complex systems such as food and biological materials. In this study imaging-based technique was developed to evaluate the texture properties of artichoke leaf extract powder at different conditions of vacuum spray drying. The use of higher temperatures and lower vacuum pressures contributed to faster evaporation rate and production of smoother and larger particles, thereby increasing ASM, CR, and IDM values and reducing CT, ET, Rangefilt and stdfilt. Furthermore, the contrast and entropy parameters showed inverse trends in comparison with correlation, energy and homogeneity. Decrease of solution concentration resulted in the more presence of lactose in the composition of extract/excipient improves the textural properties of powders. The direction parameter had also affected on GLCM textural features. Two oriented textural characteristics (contrast and correlation) also showed significant differences with respect to the nature of particle texture in different directions of measurement. The obtained data extracted from image analysis may provide valuable information to understand the role of structure with respect to product functionality.
 
Keyword(s): Artichoke leaves,Extract powder,Grey level co-occurrence matrix,Textural features,Vacuum spray drying
 
References: 
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