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Paper Information

Journal:   NEGAREH   summer 2017 , Volume 12 , Number 42 #g00650; Page(s) 63 To 69.

Periodization of the History of Scripts in the First Hand Sources of the History of Calligraphy

* Department of Architecture, Mashhad Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
Periodization of the History of Scripts in the First Hand Sources of the History of CPeriodization is the process of dividing the time into smaller blocks, so that each block has its uniformity. Almost all the historians have narrated the history of Iran’ s calligraphy on the basis of political periods or chronometric dating. But, in spite of the advantages, these methods are not consistent with the real evolution of calligraphy. So, we need a method of periodization which is firstly consistent with the visual evolution of calligraphy and secondly, has been developed on the basis of local principles. To this end, in this article the historical reports of calligraphy recorded in old manuals, prefaces of albums (Moraq`s), and biographies (Tazkares) were studied and one of their common periodization methods used for classification of history of scripts, was explained with a descriptive-analytical method. To do this the following questions were answered: which kind of periodization was used more often in the first hand resources to narrate the history of scripts? Based on what factor(s) do the periods change? What are the main characteristics of every period? What are advantages and disadvantages of this periodization model? The basis of the method is the alterations done by the outstanding calligraphers in the styles of their time. Firstly, in this method the section of periods is based on the time of prominent calligraphers whose styles became the norm of their time. Secondly, this method is one of the periodization methods which arebased on the style of the period, since the innovations of the calligraphers are evident in the form of the script. Thirdly, the method can be used for classification of all the scripts, from the scripts which history and prominent calligraphers are known— such as Nastaliq— to the ones we have limited knowledge of their history and calligraphers – such as Kufic. In this method the criterion for periodization is always the dominant norms in every era, thus in narrating the history based on it, one should not ignore the unconventional schools and styles, and norms which are not parallel to that.
Keyword(s): History of Calligraphy,Periodization,Classification ofArt History,First Hand Sources
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