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Paper Information

Journal:   NEGAREH   winter 2018 , Volume 12 , Number 44 ; Page(s) 41 To 57.

Metamorphosis of Demons in Lithographic Illustrations of Iskandarnā maNaghali (1856-57 AD)

With the arrival of the Lithographic Printing Industry in Iran and the widespread availability of books for ordinary people, folk tales, particularly legends with strange and wonderful events became so popular and brought great prosperity. One of the most popular ones is IskandarnamaNaghali which has been lithographed many times during the Qajar and the Pahlavid periods. This Islamicized version of Iskandar’ sstory, is full of supernatural and legendry beings. With regard to the description of some of these beings such as demons and giants in this book, mythological term Metamorphosis can be used. This means that the appearance and capabilities of such phenomena have been changed. The aim of this study, in addition to introducing one of the IskandarnamaNaghali manuscripts dated 1856-57 AD, is describing and analyzing 6 of these beings and comparing them with two other lithographed versions of the Iskandarnama. The research questions are as follows. What are the unique characteristics of these phenomena in appearance and ability? What are the similarities and differences of such beings with their counterparts? How to describe and categorize them according to the mythological term of Metamorphosis? The method of this research using library sources is descriptive-analytical and the images are analyzedviaPanoffsky’ s iconography. Comparative study of the three copies revealed the influence of the earlier manuscript on the later one, as well as a different approach in illustration of demons in the Pahlavid era manuscript. Moreover, the result of this study shows that the demons portrayed in this manuscript are classified into three different types of metamorphoseswhich are partial, complete and healing.
Keyword(s): Metamorphosis,Demon,Mythology,FolkloricLiterature,IskandarnamaNaghali,lithography
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