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Paper Information

Journal:   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS   May 2017 , Volume 5 , Number 5 (41); Page(s) 4965 To 4973.

The Relationship between Urinary Reflux and Nephrolithiasis in Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

Author(s):  AKHAVAN SEPAHI MOHSEN, Eftekhari Seyed Shahin*, Rashidinia Shervin, Shahmoradi sara, SHOKROLLAHI SEYED MOHAMMAD REZA, Pormehr Shahriar
* School of Medicine / Student Research Committee, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran
Background Urinary reflux is a probable reason of nephrolithiasis among children. This study aimed to assess the relationship between urinary reflux and other reason of stone formation in children. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out with 199 children diagnosed with nephrolithiasis using ultrasonography in Hazrate Masumeh Pediatrics Hospital, Qom-Iran. The patients who met the exclusion criteria including: the size of stone less than 2mm, congenital diseases of kidney and cyst or tumor, other disorders with similar ultrasound evidence of kidney stone, the use of ceftriaxone during the last 3 months, and incomplete medical record, were excluded. Variables including baseline characteristics of the samples, the presence of hematuria, pyuria, UTI, size of stone, and the findings of ultrasonography and the Voiding Cystourthrography (VCUG), were collected retrospectively. Data analyzed by SPSS version 19. 0 software. Results A total of 199 children with the mean age was 27. 7 ± 27. 9 months were included in the study. Overall, 83. 9% of the children had normal conditions regarding urinary reflux, with the total urinary reflux rate of 16. 1%. The most prevalent observed clinical manifestation was irritability (45. 2%) followed by fever (45. 2%), and dysuria (19. 6%), respectively. Results showed that UTI increased the risk of urinary reflux in 32. 4% of the children (P=0. 005). The prevalence of UTI in female children was more than male ones (27. 4% vs. 8. 6%, P =0. 001). Conclusion In the present study we concluded that UTI and also pyuria can significantly have decreased the prevalence of VUR. However, based upon our results, there was no significant correlation between urinary stone and VUR.
Keyword(s): Children,Nephrolithiasis,Urinary tract infection,Vesicoureteral reflux
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