Paper Information

Journal:   ARCHIVES OF IRANIAN MEDICINE   November 2016 , Volume 19 , Number 11; Page(s) 805 To 811.
 
Paper: 

Socioeconomic and Reproductive Health Outcomes of Female Genital Mutilation

 
DOI: 

0161911/AIM.0011

 
Author(s):  Refaei Mansoureh, AGHABABAEI SOODABEH*, POURREZA ABOLGHASEM, MASOUMI SEYEDEH ZAHRA
 
* Department of Reproductive Health, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
 
Abstract: 
Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is one of the important aspects of reproductive health. The economic, social and health consequences of FGM threaten the achievement of sustainable development goals. The purpose of this study was to assess the economic, social and reproductive health consequences of FGM from the perspective of individual, family, community and health system. Methods: In this study, we reviewed 1536 articles from 1979 to 2015. Fifty-one studies were directly related to our goal. Research papers, review articles, case studies and books on the research topic were used. Results: The results of this review showed that most studies on FGM, have investigated health complications of FGM, and few studies 􀁋 􀁄 􀁙 􀁈 􀀃 􀁄 􀁇 􀁇 􀁕 􀁈 􀁖 􀁖 􀁈 􀁇 􀀃 􀁌 􀁗 􀁖 􀀃 􀁖 􀁒 􀁆 􀁌 􀁒 􀁈 􀁆 􀁒 􀁑 􀁒 􀁐 􀁌 􀁆 􀀃 􀁄 􀁖 􀁓 􀁈 􀁆 􀁗 􀁖 􀀑 􀀃 􀀷 􀁋 􀁈 􀀃 􀁆 􀁒 􀁐 􀁓 􀁏 􀁌 􀁆 􀁄 􀁗 􀁌 􀁒 􀁑 􀁖 􀀃 􀁉 􀁕 􀁒 􀁐 􀀃 􀁗 􀁋 􀁈 􀀃 􀀩 􀀪 􀀰 􀀃 􀁆 􀁄 􀁑 􀀃 􀁌 􀁐 􀁓 􀁒 􀁖 􀁈 􀀃 􀁄 􀀃 􀁖 􀁌 􀁊 􀁑 􀁌 􀂿 􀁆 􀁄 􀁑 􀁗 􀀃 􀁈 􀁆 􀁒 􀁑 􀁒 􀁐 􀁌 􀁆 􀀃 􀁅 􀁘 􀁕 􀁇 􀁈 􀁑 􀀃 􀁒 􀁑 􀀃 􀁌 􀁑 􀁇 􀁌 􀁙 􀁌 􀁇 􀁘 􀁄 􀁏 􀁖 􀀏 􀀃 society and health system. Social consequences of FGM are more irritating than health consequences, so to tackle this practice; its 􀁖 􀁒 􀁆 􀁌 􀁄 􀁏 􀀃 􀁄 􀁖 􀁓 􀁈 􀁆 􀁗 􀁖 􀀃 􀁖 􀁋 􀁒 􀁘 􀁏 􀁇 􀀃 􀁅 􀁈 􀀃 􀁐 􀁒 􀁕 􀁈 􀀃 􀁈 􀁐 􀁓 􀁋 􀁄 􀁖 􀁌 􀁝 􀁈 􀁇 􀀑 􀀃 􀀶 􀁌 􀁊 􀁑 􀁌 􀂿 􀁆 􀁄 􀁑 􀁗 􀀃 􀁖 􀁋 􀁒 􀁕 􀁗 􀀃 􀁄 􀁑 􀁇 􀀃 􀁏 􀁒 􀁑 􀁊 􀀃 􀁗 􀁈 􀁕 􀁐 􀀃 􀁆 􀁒 􀁑 􀁖 􀁈 􀁔 􀁘 􀁈 􀁑 􀁆 􀁈 􀁖 􀀃 􀁒 􀁉 􀀃 􀀩 􀀪 􀀰 􀀃 􀁗 􀁋 􀁕 􀁈 􀁄 􀁗 􀁈 􀁑 􀀃 􀁚 􀁒 􀁐 􀁈 􀁑 􀂶 􀁖 􀀃 􀁕 􀁈 􀁓 􀁕 􀁒 􀁇 􀁘 􀁆 􀁗 􀁌 􀁙 􀁈 􀀃 􀁋 􀁈 􀁄 􀁏 􀁗 􀁋 􀀞 􀀃 Reproductive health is one of the essential prerequisites of sustainable development. Sustainable development will be achieved if women are healthy. This practice can threaten achieving sustainable development. In Iran, FGM is performed in some areas, but there are no 􀁒 􀁉 􀂿 􀁆 􀁌 􀁄 􀁏 􀀃 􀁖 􀁗 􀁄 􀁗 􀁌 􀁖 􀁗 􀁌 􀁆 􀁖 􀀃 􀁄 􀁅 􀁒 􀁘 􀁗 􀀃 􀁌 􀁗 􀀃 􀁄 􀁑 􀁇 􀀃 􀁗 􀁋 􀁈 􀁕 􀁈 􀀃 􀁋 􀁄 􀁖 􀀃 􀁜 􀁈 􀁗 􀀃 􀁅 􀁈 􀁈 􀁑 􀀃 􀁑 􀁒 􀀃 􀁓 􀁏 􀁄 􀁑 􀀃 􀁗 􀁒 􀀃 􀁇 􀁈 􀁄 􀁏 􀀃 􀁚 􀁌 􀁗 􀁋 􀀃 􀀩 􀀪 􀀰 􀀑 Conclusion: FGM is a form of social injustice which women suffer. Ending FGM requires a deep and long-term commitment. Knowing its 􀁆 􀁒 􀁑 􀁖 􀁈 􀁔 􀁘 􀁈 􀁑 􀁆 􀁈 􀁖 􀀃 􀁄 􀁑 􀁇 􀀃 􀁌 􀁗 􀁖 􀀃 􀁈 􀁉 􀁉 􀁈 􀁆 􀁗 􀁖 􀀃 􀁒 􀁑 􀀃 􀁌 􀁑 􀁇 􀁌 􀁙 􀁌 􀁇 􀁘 􀁄 􀁏 􀀏 􀀃 􀁉 􀁄 􀁐 􀁌 􀁏 􀁌 􀁈 􀁖 􀀏 􀀃 􀁗 􀁋 􀁈 􀀃 􀁋 􀁈 􀁄 􀁏 􀁗 􀁋 􀀃 􀁖 􀁜 􀁖 􀁗 􀁈 􀁐 􀀃 􀁄 􀁑 􀁇 􀀃 􀁆 􀁒 􀁐 􀁐 􀁘 􀁑 􀁌 􀁗 􀁜 􀀃 􀁚 􀁌 􀁏 􀁏 􀀃 􀁋 􀁈 􀁏 􀁓 􀀃 􀁖 􀁘 􀁓 􀁓 􀁒 􀁕 􀁗 􀁈 􀁕 􀁖 􀀃 􀁗 􀁒 􀀃 􀁆 􀁒 􀁑 􀁗 􀁌 􀁑 􀁘 􀁈 􀀃 􀂿 􀁊 􀁋 􀁗 􀁌 􀁑 􀁊 􀀃 􀁗 􀁋 􀁌 􀁖 􀀃 􀁓 􀁕 􀁄 􀁆 􀁗 􀁌 􀁆 􀁈 􀀑 􀀃 Any money spent on eliminating this harmful practice, compared with the costs of complications, would not be wasteful. It seems that further studies are needed to assess socioeconomic effects of FGM and the relationship between type of FGM and induced complications. Such studies will help policymakers to tackle this practice.
 
Keyword(s): Economic consequence,female genital mutilation,reproductive health,social consequence
 
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