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Paper Information

Journal:   JOURNAL OF AGING PSYCHOLOGY   2017 , Volume 2 , Number 4 ; Page(s) 237 To 248.
 
Paper: 

COMPARISON OF DISTRESS TOLERANCE, COPING STYLES, SPIRITUAL INTELLIGENCE AND HAPPINESS AMONG ELDERLY MEN AND WOMEN

 
 
Author(s):  SAFARZADEH SAHAR, SAVARI KARIM, DASHTBOZORGI ZAHRA
 
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Abstract: 

Elderly is a period of human growth that is accompanied by various ups and downs, while the different responses of elderly men and women in their old ages to different situations can lead to maintaining or falling of their mental health. The present study is conducted to compare distress tolerance, coping styles, spiritual intelligence and happiness among elderly men and women in the city of Ahwaz. The research sample consists of 380 people (190 women and 190 men) selected by convenience sampling method. Measurement tools are Simmons and Gaher's The Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), short version of The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISSTM) by Calsbeek, Henegouwen, and Dekker, Integrated Spiritual Intelligence Scale (ISIS) by Amram and Dryer, and The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) by Argyle and Hills. The method of this descriptive study is of causal-comparative, and the analysis of the data carried out with the help of Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), shows that there is a significant difference between male and female elderly in terms of distress absorption and distress assessment, problem-oriented, excitement-oriented and avoidance-oriented coping styles, as well as spiritual intelligence and happiness components (P<0.001). It was also revealed that distress attraction, excitement-oriented and avoidance-oriented coping styles as well as spiritual intelligence components are more common among elderly women, while distress assessment, problem-oriented coping style and happiness components are more common in the elderly men. As a result, it is clear that elderly women are more vulnerable in comparison to elderly men, based on the high level of using excitement-oriented and avoidance-oriented coping styles and distress absorption, therefore more effort is required to improve their mental health.

 
Keyword(s): DISTRESS TOLERANCE, STRESS COPING STYLE, SPIRITUAL INTELLIGENCE, HAPPINESS, ELDERLY
 
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