Paper Information

Journal:   THE PLANT PRODUCTION (SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE)   SUMMER 2017 , Volume 40 , Number 2 #A0044; Page(s) 89 To 98.
 
Paper: 

EFFECT OF MALLING AND MALLING MERTON ROOTSTOCKS AND PLANTING DISTANCES ON THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY CHARACTERISTICS OF APPLE CULTIVAR 'RED DELICIOUS' IN MESHGINSHAHR REGION

 
 
Author(s):  KARBALAEI KHIAVI H.*, PIRAYESH A.
 
* PLANT PROTECTION RESEARCH DEPARTMENT, ARDABIL AGRICULTURAL AND NATURAL RESOURCES RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTRE, AREEO, ARDABIL, IRAN
 
Abstract: 

Background and Objectives: Apple belongs to Rosaceae specious and its scientific name is Malus Pumila L. Today over 35 specious of apple has been known in the world. According to the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), regarding the Apple planting area, China ranks first and Russia, India and Ukraine place second and third respectively. Considering the fact that Malling rootstock has different effects on quality and quantity characteristics of different specious and show different reactions in different densities, this experiment was done in order to determine the apple cultivar ' Red Delicious' in Meshginshahr region.
Material and Methods: This experiment was done in split plot based on Random Complete Block Design in three replications in two years in Meshginshahr Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station.
The experimental treatments were D=planting distance in two levels (d1=2
´4 and d2=3´4) meters as the main plot, and R=growing rootstocks in three levels (r1=MM106, r2=M9 and r3=M26) as the secondary plot. Each treatment had 4 plants of apple 'Red Delicious' crossbred on their growing branches. The total numbers of plants used were 72. The qualitative and quantitative characteristics such as flower density, yield, fruit size, color, acidity, solvable solid materials and dry matter weight were measured separately for each treatment.
Results: Analysis of variances showed significant differences between years in terms of yield and flower density; between the planting distances in terms of yield, fruit size and soluble solids concentration and flower density; between rootstocks in terms of yield, fruit size, flower density and dry matter; and significant differences in yields between interactions of the planting distances
´rootstocks, year´planting distances´rootstocks. Apple Cultivar 'Red Delicious' grafted on M9 rootstock in planting distances of 2´4 m with 9.367 tons per hectare had the highest yield and was placed in group. Analysis of average effect of rootstock in fruit production showed that ' Red Delicious' on M9 rootstocks produced the biggest fruit and had the highest density. Fruit size, flower density on tree and soluble solids concentration in the planting at a distance of 3´4 m were greater than that in 2´4 m.
Discussions: Year and planting distance interplay on yield had a significant effect in a way that the amounts of yield on all rootstocks were the highest during the two years of experiment. Planting distance had a significant effect on solvable solid matter of the cultivar apple red delicious at the probability level of 1 percent. Other factors did not have any significant effect on solvable solid matter acidity. In more planting distances, the trees can get more sun light and nutrient materials, hence their solvable solid matter increases.

 
Keyword(s): FRUIT SIZE, MALLING, MALLING MERTON, PLANTING DISTANCE, ROOTSTOCKS
 
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