Paper Information

Journal:   ELECTRONIC JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION   2017 , Volume 8 , Number 2 #G0058; Page(s) 91 To 106.
 
Paper: 

ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS AND ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS FROM SPINACIA OLERACEA L. (VARIETIES MASHHAD) ON BACTERIAL INDICATORS

 
 
Author(s):  ISSAZADEH A.*, YAVARMANESH M., MOHAMMADI SANI A.
 
* DEPARTMENT OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, QUCHAN BRANCH, ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY, QUCHAN, IRAN
 
Abstract: 

Background and objectives: Compounds drived from Plants have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries because of their antimicrobial activity. The use of preservatives and anti-microbial materials is an approach for controlling pathogen bacteria in food stuff. Developing anti-microbial drugs is one of the most important advances in the treatment assumes. Due to their natural origin, herbal extracts are more compatible with body organism than antibiotics and their side effects are very scarce. Spinach as a source of new plant maybe used as an anti-oxidant and antimicrobial agent to deal with free radicals and microbial pollutions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Spinach (varieties Mashhad) on pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923, Escherichia coli ATCC2592 and, Listeria innocua ATCC33090.
Materials and methods: The susceptibility testing of bacteria was performed by disc diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were determined using broth micro dilution method. In disc diffusion method, Erythromycin, Gentamicin and chloramphenicol were used as a positive control for Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively.
Results: According to disc diffusion method, gram positive bacteria (Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus) were the most resistant and Escherichia coli was the most sensitive bacteria. Also, MIC valuese of the aqueous extract of Spinach (varieties Mashhad) toward Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were determined as 46000 PPM, 48000 PPM and 28000 PPM, respectively, whereas MIC for the alcoholic extract was comparable (10393 PPM), on all tested bacteria. The both aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Spinach (varieties Mashhad) had antibacterial properties.
Conclusion: Alcoholic extract of Spinach (varieties Mashhad) showed more potent antibacterial activity than aqueous extract on Escherichia coli. Also, the effect of its alcoholic extract on Escherichia coli was comparable with Erythromycin on Listeria innocua at disc diffusion test. Finally, it can be concluded that high amounts of flavonoids and terpenes, unsaturated fatty acids and inorganic materials are probably the most important inhibitory agents of spinach on gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. As a result, Spinach extract can be used as a natural antibiotic and preservative in food industries and pharmaceuticals.

 
Keyword(s): ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SPINACH EXTRACT, ERYTHROMYCIN, CHLORAMPHENICOL
 
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