Paper Information

Journal:   JOURNAL OF AGROECOLOGY (كشاورزي بوم شناختي)   2017 , Volume 7 , Number 2 #G0056; Page(s) 134 To 154.
 
Paper: 

AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONING OF RAINFED WHEAT IN GOLESTAN PROVINCE BASED ON METEOROLOGY, AGRONOMY, SOIL AND LAND PROPERTIES

 
 
Author(s):  KABOOSI KAMI*, MAJIDI OSMAN
 
* DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, GORGAN BRANCH, ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY, GORGAN, IRAN
 
Abstract: 

Introduction: Golestan Province is one of the main areas of wheat production in Iran. In 2015, it ranked third among all the provinces of the country in term of acreage and yield (Anonymous, 2016). Given the strategic importance of wheat, it is necessary to identify suitable areas for its rainfed cultivation based on meteorology, agronomy, soil and land properties. This process is known as agroecological zoning. In addition to analyzing ecological factors affecting rainfed wheat production based on the consolidation of scientific references, this study will also identify suitable zones in Golestan for rainfed wheat cultivation.
Materials and methods: Firstly, six factors were determined in 30 weather stations in the concurrent period 1991-2015 including: planting date, dates of each phenological stage of wheat based on growing degree-days (Ahmadi et al., 2016), precipitation, air temperature and the ratio of effective precipitation to crop evapotranspiration in each stage, and total growing season of wheat. These parameters were then estimated by the occurrence probability level of 75% (Sys et al., 1991). The possibility levels of higher and lower temperatures than the tolerable threshold of wheat in various stages of growth were also calculated. Next, a zoning map of the parameters and characteristics of elevation, slope, soil type and salinity were prepared in five classes. Finally, by overlaying these data layer (layer 26), the agroecological zoning of agricultural land of Golestan for the cultivation of wheat was performed.
Results and discussion: Average air temperature during germination, flowering and seed filling stages of wheat in Golestan with occurrence probability of 75% were 8 (moderately suitable), 10.9 (moderately suitable) and 22.7oC (suitable), respectively. Also, the occurrence probability of temperature less than the tolerance threshold in the germination stage of wheat (10oC) was considerable in the province, but the occurrence probabilities of higher and lower temperatures than the tolerance thresholds of wheat in other growth stages were low in the dominant area of the province. The results showed that in terms of the ratio of effective rainfall to potential evapotranspiration during the total growth period, 92 percent of the province area was located relatively equally in moderately suitable (29%), suitable (9%), and very suitable (20%) classes for rainfed wheat cultivation. Also, soil salinity in 72 percent of the agricultural land was less than the tolerance threshold of wheat (6 dS.m-1). According to the results, total area of very suitable, suitable and moderately suitable zones for rainfed wheat cultivation in the agricultural zones of the province was 602,000 hectares, that is 51% and 117% more than the current acreage of total wheat and rainfed wheat, respectively. Furthermore, the sum of moderately to very suitable zones for rainfed wheat cultivation was calculated at 64.8 of the province and 85 percent of total agricultural land. In the entire country, the highest percentage of very suitable areas were located in Gonbad (24.7%) and Kalaleh (20.9%), suitable areas in Maravehtapeh (18.2%) and Gorgan (16.4%), and moderately suitable areas in Gonbad (22.8%), Aghghalla (19.7%) and Gomishan (17.7%).
Conclusion: Suitable areas for rainfed wheat cultivation in Golestan Province are generally located in the middle strip of east-west. The extents of these zones in the occurrence probability level of 75% are over the current wheat acreage of the province. This result is consistent with the Bidadi et al. (2015) findings.

 
Keyword(s): AIR TEMPERATURE, EVAPOTRANSPIRATION, GROWING DEGREE-DAY (GDD), PRECIPITATION, SALINITY, SLOPE
 
References: 
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