Paper Information

Journal:   JOURNAL OF AGROECOLOGY (كشاورزي بوم شناختي)   2017 , Volume 7 , Number 2 #G0056; Page(s) 79 To 93.
 
Paper: 

EFFECTS OF BERSEEM CLOVER (TRIFOLIUM ALEXANDERINUM) AND TRIGONELLA (TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECAM) COVER CROP ON YIELD AND WEED CONTROL OF WHEAT

 
 
Author(s):  REZVANI MOHAMMAD*, BAGHERIAN ABDOLREZA, ZAEFARIAN FAEZEH, NIKKHAH KOCHEKSAREE HASSAN
 
* DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY AND PLANT BREEDING, QAEMSHAHR BRANCH, ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY, QAEMSHAHR, IRAN
 
Abstract: 

Introduction: Increasing our knowledge of environmental hazards and resistance to herbicides while avoiding high costs has led to the use of applied approaches that pose minimal danger to the agroecosystem and reduce herbicidal pollution. Living mulches are plants from the Fabaceae family that are used as cover crops. Since cover crops uptake water and nutrients from the soil, they require appropriate management to reduce their competition with the main crop and prevent lost yield. Thus the growth rate, density and other effective growth factors of living mulch is important. The objectives of the experiment were to investigate the impact of using berseem clover (Trifolium alexanderinum) and trigonella (Trigonella foenum-graecam) as cover crops on the yield and yield components of wheat as well as weed reduction.
Material and methods: In order to investigate the effect of using berseem clover (Trifolium alexanderinum) and trigonella (Trigonella foenum-graecam) as cover crops on the yield and yield components of wheat and weed control, an experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with eight treatments and three replicates in the autumn of 2011, in Behshahr, Iran. Treatments included a wheat planting distance of 20 cm and 30 cm with and without the presence of berseem clover and trigonella as cover crops. These were planted both in areas with weeds and without. The weed flora of the field included wild oat (Avena fatua L.), Milk thistle (Silybium marianum) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth). A sampling was carried out in order to evaluate wheat dry matter and density, the biomass of weeds, and the dry matter of cover crop. Variations in wheat and cover crop height were investigated by using the Gompertz sigmoidal model (Draper and Smith, 1981). Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared with Duncan's test.
Results and discussion: The results of the experiment showed that wheat in the presence of trigonella had a higher level of dry matter (419.39 g m-2), and higher economical (5,390 kg ha-1) and biological yield (16,256.70 kg ha-1). The wheat yield from the 20-cm plantings in all treatments was more than in the 30-cm plantings. The root of Fabaceae plants, by penetrating the soil deeply, improve and enhance the microorganism population and by biological nitrogen fixation that supply the nitrogen requirements of the main crop (Naghizadeh and Ghalavi, 2012). Moreover, cover crops through the uptake of nitrogen and nutrients prevent their leaching (Ranells and Wagger, 1984). The dry matter and height of trigonella both in the 20-cm and 30-cm plantings was higher than berseem clover. The reduction of weed biomass in the treatment with trigonella was higher than the treatments with berseem clover used as a cover crop. This result shows that trigonella is better able to adapt to the environmental growth conditions in wheat canopy compared to berseem clover and could be a suitable cover crop for wheat (Sabahi et al., 2006). Weed biomass in the 20-cm wheat planting was lower than in the 30-cm planting.
Conclusion: Generally, both cover crops were successful in weed control and enhancement of wheat yield compared to a wheat monoculture. Trigonella, however, was more efficient than berseem clover in reducing weed Trifolium alexandrium L. growth and enhancing wheat yield. The results obtained from the research could be used in sustainable management practices to reduce weed growth and herbicide application in wheat fields.

 
Keyword(s): COVER CROPS, ECONOMIC YIELD, WEED DRY MATTER
 
References: 
  • ندارد
 
  Persian Abstract Yearly Visit 35
 
Latest on Blog
Enter SID Blog