Paper Information

Journal:   JOURNAL OF PLANT PROTECTION (AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY)   SUMMER 2017 , Volume 31 , Number 2 #M0057; Page(s) 257 To 266.
 
Paper: 

STUDY SOME ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF MILKY THISTLE (SILYBUM MARIANUM (L.) GAERTN)

 
 
Author(s):  ZEIDALI E., MORADI R.*, AHMADI A., HOSSEINI M.
 
* AGRICULTURAL FACULTY OF BARDSIR, SHAHID BAHONAR UNIVERSITYOF KERMAN, IRAN
 
Abstract: 

Introduction: Milky thistle (Silybum marianum) is an annual or biennial plant of the Asteraceae family.
Possibly native near the coast of southeast England, it has been widely introduced outside its natural range, for example into North America, Iran, Australia and New Zealand where it is considered an invasive weed.
Seed is an important stage of plant life history. Most invasive plants primarily rely on seedling recruitment for population establishment and persistence. The rapid spread of many invasive plants is frequently correlated with special seed traits. Seed trait variations exist not only among species but also within species. Seed traits variations within a species are essential for the seedling establishment at different habitats.
Environmental factors, such as temperature, soil solution osmotic potential, solution pH, light quality, management practices and seed location in the soil seedbank, affect weed seed germination and emergence.
Fluctuations in temperature can influence seed germination differently than those under constant temperatures; however, such information is not available on Milky thistle. A light requirement for germination is the principal means by which germination can be restricted to an area close to the soil surface, and species requiring light for germination are potentially more likely to be prevalent in no-till and pasture systems. Soil pH affects the development and competitiveness of crops and weeds by affecting the availability of essential minerals, nutrients, the solubility of toxic elements, and soil microflora. Seed burial depth (buried by tillage or other means) also affects germination and seedling emergence of several weed species.
Better knowledge of the factors that influence seed germination and seedling emergence of Milky thistle could contribute to the development of control measures and help determine its potential for invasion into new areas. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to determine the effect of various environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of Milky thistle.
Material and Methods: Germination of Milky thistle was determined by placing 25 seed in a 9-cm-diam Petri dish containing two layers of Whatman No.1 filter paper and moistened with 5 ml of distilled water or a treatment solution.
Temperature: Germination of freshly harvested seed was determined in growth chambers under fluctuating day/night temperatures (15/5, 20/10, 15/25, 15/30 and 20/35° C).
Salinity: In this experiment, seeds were exposed to seven levels of increasing salinity using NaCl solutions including 0, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mM. Petri dishes were incubated as described in the general protocol under the light?dark regime.
pH: To examine the effects of pH on seed germination, buffered solutions of pH 5 to 9 were prepared.
Seed burial depth: The effect of different burial depths on seedling emergence was investigated in a growth chamber. Seeds were buried at six different depths (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 cm) in 15-cm-diam plastic pots.
Statistical analysis: Data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the difference between treatment means was separated using FLSD test. A significance level of 5% was applied by SAS 9.2.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that effect of different temperature regimes on germination percentage and rate, plumule length and seedling dry weight were significant (P<0.01). Increasing temperature led to increasingin all the traits. Increasing salinity level decreased the studied traits significantly. Also, pH had a significant effect on germination characteristics of Milky thistle. The highest values of the traits were gained at 7 and 8 pH. The lowest value of the traits was assigned to 5 pH. Various seed burial depth had a significant effect on seedling emergence percentage. The maximum seedling emergence percentage was assigned to 0 and 1 cm seed burial depth. Seed burial depth of 1 cm showed the highest root length (19.5 cm).4 and 0 cm depths had thehighest and lowest stem length, respectively. Seed burial depth treatment had no significant effect on root weight, but shoot dry weight affected by burial depth, significantly. The highest shoot dry weight (0.62 g/plant) was gained at 4 cm burial depth.
Conclusion: Results showed that the effect of different temperatures on maximum germination percentage and rate ofSilybummarinum were significant, as, the highest and lowest germination percentage wasobserved at 20/35 (night /day) with a 98.5%, and 5/15 (night /day) with a 38%. Increasing salinity reduces seed germination.
Maximum seeds germination ofSilybummarinum was occurred at depths of 0 and 1 cm with 93.35 and 89.37 percent, respectively. General emergence decreased with increased seed burial depth. PH treatments had the significant effect on germination of this weed. Minimum and maximum germination ofSilybummarinum were gained at pH 5 and 8 with 21.5% and 96.5%, respectively.

 
Keyword(s): ACIDITY, EMERGENCE, FLUCTUATING TEMPERATURE, SEED BURIAL DEPTH, SALINITY
 
References: 
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