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Paper Information

Journal:   JOURNAL OF PLANT PROTECTION (AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY)   SPRING 2017 , Volume 31 , Number 1 ; Page(s) 117 To 123.
 
Paper: 

THE EFFECT OF CROP SEED RATE AND POST EMERGENCE HERBICIDE APPLICATION ON WEED CONTROL AND GRAIN YIELD OF WHEAT

 
 
Author(s):  BABAEI M., SAEEDIPOUR S.*
 
* IDENTIFICATION AND WEED CONTROL DEPARTMENT, SHOUSHTAR BRANCH, ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY, SHOUSHTAR, IRAN
 
Abstract: 

Introduction Interference weed with crop is a major concern for production in croplands particularly where modern agricultural practices such as mechanical weeding and the application of herbicides are limited. At present, the aim of weed management is to keep weed population at an acceptable level rather than to keep crop totally free of weeds. Among the weed control methods, the chemical control is the easiest one of the recent origins, as well the most successful alternative method.
Materials and methods Field experiments were conducted at Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran (320 3´ N, 480 50´ E) during winters of 2012-2013 in order to evaluate the effect of sulfosulfuron and sulfosulfuron plus metsulfuron-methyl at 30 and 45 g a.i. ha-1, respectively, and wheat seed rate at 180, 200 and 220 kg ha-1 on weed control. Experiments were carry out in a randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement and four replicates. The plot size was 6 m × 2 m. The soil was a clay loam texture, pH 7.4 and 0.6 % organic matter content. In the experimental site, the 30-year average annual rainfall is 321.4 mm, daily average annual air temperature is minimum and maximum 9.5° C and 46.3 ° C, respectively. Wheat cv. Chamran was planted in the first fortnight of November. Seedbed preparation consisted of moldboard plowing, disking and leveling. A basal fertilizer rate of 125 kg ha-1 N (form of urea (46% N)), 75 kg ha-1 P2O5 (diammonium phosphate (18% N; 46% P2O5)), and 60 kg K2O ha-1 (sulfate of potash (50% K2O)) was applied. The whole P and K and half of N were applied at sowing. The remaining half of N was top dressed with the irrigation at the booting stage.
Results and DiscussionAs the crop population brings competition for limited resources with the weeds, we tested different seeding rates to increase crop plant density as a measure to control weeds. The weed population was significantly affected by seed rate. In general, there was an inverse relationship between weed density (p<0.01) and wheat seed rate. Increasing seed rate resulted in a higher crop plant population providing less space for weeds to grow and offering much higher competition for light, nutrient and other growth factors.. The highest weed dry weight was recorded in the seed rate 180 kg ha-1and the lowest was found in 220 kg ha-1. There are several reasons why there was a lower density of weed infestation in areas that had a higher seed rate. At relatively low crop densities, crop cover early in growing season is low, leaving a larger amount of resources available for the weeds, thus enabling them to establish and grow quickly. There was no significant variation in respect of crop characteristics among the treatment combinations, except for 1000 grain weight, grain yield and harvest index. The highest 1000 grain weight was recorded in seed 180 kg ha-1with sulfosulfuron treatment, while the lowest was in 220 kg ha-1seed with weedy check, which was not statistically different from 200kg ha-1.
With the aggravation of the conditions of competition within an inter-species by increasing crop density coupled with the intra-specific competition out in such a way decreases photosynthesis materials share spike and shorten the period of grain filling will be that, these factors can be decreased 1000-seed weight. A weedy plot for an increased weed competition period resulted in decreased grain yield and harvest index in all seed rates.
Sulfosulfuron treatment compared to metsulfuron-methyl plus sulfosulfuron and no-weeding treated plots resulted in the highest yield. The highest seed yield amounting 660 g m-2 was found when sowing was 200 kg ha-1. In contrast, no-wedding regime resulted in lowest yield in all seed rates ConclusionsOur results also indicated that increases in seeding rate would increase crop-weed competition..
We hypothesized; either increasing the crop’s competitive ability against weeds through manipulation in seeding rate and increasing weed through application of sulfosulfuron herbicide would provide superior weed management and recuperative the wheat crop yield.

 
Keyword(s): CROP-WEED COMPETITION, GRAIN YIELD, SEED RATE, WEED DRY WEIGHT
 
References: 
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