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Paper Information

Journal:   PHILOSOPHICAL INVESTIGATIONS   SPRING-SUMMER 2017 , Volume 13 , Number 31 ; Page(s) 125 To 141.
 
Paper: 

IS RELIGION A BY-PRODUCT OF BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION? RICHARD SOSIS’S CRITICISM OF NON-ADAPTATIONIST APPROACH TO EVOLUTIONARY ACCOUNT OF RELIGION

 
 
Author(s):  KESHANI AMIR*
 
* ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN BROADCASTING, TEHRAN, IRAN
 
Abstract: 

In this paper, we first discuss the main questions in evolutionary accounts of religion. Then we offer the main answers to these questions. The hypothesis of religion as a by-product, will be briefly introduced and then Richard Sosi’s criticism of this hypothesis will be explained step by step. In order to criticize the hypothesis of religion as by-product and to provide a proper basis for his criticism, Richard Sosi starts with the definition of religion and regards it as a system. He believes that a religious system is mixed of some primary elements, including various cognitive and behavioral processes. Cognitive assessments determine only one aspect of religion, while religion is a comprehensive system whose overall performance must be examined. Even if the cognitive assessments are precise and can show that metaphysical beliefs are the by-products of some brain functions, this can’t determine whether a religious system is a factor that leads to adaptation. Richard Sosi considers the concept of "by-product" and, through a scientific analysis, shows that religion can be seen as a secondary adaptation or exaptation, not as a by-product.

 
Keyword(s): EVOLUTION, RELIGION, ADAPTATION, ACCOUNT, BY-PRODUCT, SECONDARY ADAPTATION, EXAPTATION
 
 
References: 
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Citations: 
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APA: Copy

KESHANI, A. (2017). IS RELIGION A BY-PRODUCT OF BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION? RICHARD SOSIS’S CRITICISM OF NON-ADAPTATIONIST APPROACH TO EVOLUTIONARY ACCOUNT OF RELIGION. PHILOSOPHICAL INVESTIGATIONS, 13(31 ), 125-141. https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=568907



Vancouver: Copy

KESHANI AMIR. IS RELIGION A BY-PRODUCT OF BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION? RICHARD SOSIS’S CRITICISM OF NON-ADAPTATIONIST APPROACH TO EVOLUTIONARY ACCOUNT OF RELIGION. PHILOSOPHICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 2017 [cited 2021July25];13(31 ):125-141. Available from: https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=568907



IEEE: Copy

KESHANI, A., 2017. IS RELIGION A BY-PRODUCT OF BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION? RICHARD SOSIS’S CRITICISM OF NON-ADAPTATIONIST APPROACH TO EVOLUTIONARY ACCOUNT OF RELIGION. PHILOSOPHICAL INVESTIGATIONS, [online] 13(31 ), pp.125-141. Available: https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=568907.



 
 
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