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Paper Information

Journal:   NEUROSCIENCE JOURNAL OF SHEFAYE KHATAM   WINTER 2015 , Volume 3 , Number 1; Page(s) 115 To 130.
 
Paper: 

EXERCISE PRECONDITIONING AND NEUROPROTECTION: A REVIEW OF MECHANISMS

 
DOI: 

10.18869/acadpub.shefa.3.1.115

 
Author(s):  SAMADI ALI*
 
* DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT SCIENCE, FACULTY OF HUMANITIES, SHAHED UNIVERSITY, TEHRAN, IRAN
 
Abstract: 

Introduction: Cerebrovascular accident or stroke is the first cause of acquired disability and the third leading cause of mortality in adults. It is known that exercise modifies risk factors such as hypertension, lipid profile, diabetes that may play an important role in the prevention of cerebrovascular accidents. However, recent findings suggest that besides adjusting the risk factors of stroke, exercise may be helpful in inducing endogenous neuroprotection and neuronal survival in ischemia-reperfusion condition which is the main mechanism of ischemic stroke. The effect of previous exercises in protecting neurons against ischemic injury and inducing neuronal resistance known as exercise preconditioning, which is a relatively new field of research on the effects of exercise on the brain. Although the exact mechanisms of neuroprotection induced by exercise preconditioning have yet to be known, previous studies have shown that exercise preconditioning may be helpful through several mechanisms, such as strengthening blood-brain barrier, inducing cerebral angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, improving cerebral metabolism and decreasing neuronal metabolic disturbances following ischemic injury, upregulation of neurotrophins expression, as well as reducing inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress.
Conclusion: It seems that exercise preconditioning in people predisposed to brain ischemic injuries or in people with history of mild ischemic injury may help in reducing the primary damage and improve the neurological outcomes after ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, more research is needed to develop exercise protocols with appropriate time, intensity, and type to induce the optimal neuroprotection.

 
Keyword(s): EXERCISE, STROKE, ISCHEMIA
 
References: 
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