Paper Information

Journal:   IRANIAN JOURNAL OF ARTHROPOD-BORNE DISEASES   JUNE 2016 , Volume 10 , Number 2; Page(s) 148 To 158.
 
Paper: 

RHIPICEPHALUS ANNULATUS (ACARI: IXODIDAE) CONTROL BY NIGELLA SATIVA, THYME AND SPINOSAD PREPARATIONS

 
 
Author(s):  ABOELHADID SHAWKY MOHAMED*, MAHRAN HESHAM A., EL HARIRI HAZEM M., SHOKIER KHALID MOHAMED
 
* DEPARTMENT OF PARASITOLOGY, FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE, BENI-SUEF UNIVERSITY, EGYPT
 
Abstract: 

Background: Several compounds obtained from plants have potential insecticidal, growth deterrent or repellent characteristics. The control of hard ticks by non-chemical substances was targeted in this study.
Methods: The effect of 36 materials on in-vitro ticks was studied, including 2 absolute controls (water only or absolute ethyl alcohol only), 6 conventionally used spinosad preparations (aqueous solutions), 12 Nigella sativa (N. sativa) preparations (aqueous and alcoholic solutions), and 12 Thyme preparations (aqueous and alcoholic solutions). The engorged ticks were tested in-vitro for mortality and oviposition ability using the studied materials.
Results: The final mortality after 48 hours of application in N. sativa aqueous preparations began from 10.0% concentration, 1.0% to 100% by concentration preparations
³10%. In addition, N. sativa alcoholic preparations began from 50.0% concentration, 2% to 100% by concentration ³5%. Meanwhile, Thyme aqueous and alcoholic preparations began from 70.0% concentration, 5% to 90% by concentration 10–20%. Additionally, spinosad aqueous preparations and both of control preparations (Water and Alcohol) resulted in no mortality. All differences were statistically significant. The oviposition was stopped in N. sativa (aqueous ³10% and alcoholic ³5%) and in spinosad (aqueous³25%). The aqoues dilution of the used matters killed B. annulatus larvae beginning from the concentration 5%.
Conclusion: Nigella sativa alcohol 20% was the best of studied preparations being the lowest concentration (20%) that could achieve the highest lethal (100%) effect in shortest time (12 hours). Moreover, Thyme oil and spinosad could not kill 100% of adult but did on larvae.

 
Keyword(s): RHIPICEPHALUS ANNULATUS, NIGELLA SATIVA, THYME OILS
 
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