Paper Information

Journal:   ELECTRONIC JOURNAL OF SOIL MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION   2016 , Volume 5 , Number 4; Page(s) 133 To 146.
 
Paper: 

HEAVY METALS BIO-AVAILABLITY (ZN, CD, NI, CU, AND PB) IN SEDIMENTS OF ABSHINEH RIVER

 
 
Author(s):  ARFANIA H.*, ASADZADEH F.
 
* DEPT. OF SOIL SCIENCE, URMIA UNIVERSITY
 
Abstract: 

Background and Objectives: Heavy metals added to an aquatic system by natural and anthropogenic sources during their transport, are distributed between different compartments of ecosystems such as water and sediment. Measurement of bioavailability and mobility are required in order to understand the behavior of heavy metals in sediments and to prevent potential toxic hazards. Metals are introduced into aquatic environment from various sources and accumulated in sediments. The distribution of metal along route of rivers is also different. Distribution of metals in bioavailable fractions make them more susceptible to be released to water.
Material and Methods: Seventeen surface sediment samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth of rivers Abshineh and analyzed for total and bioavailable concentrations of zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb). Abshineh River is the major source of drinking water for Hamadan city and many urban, agricultural and industrial areas active along the river.
Results: Downstream sediments have lower clay, calcium carbonate equivalent and organic matter in comparison with upstream sediments. Average total (
± Standard Deviation) Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu and Pb concentrations of the sediments were 93.08±20.66, 1.24±0.63, 57.72±13.08, 19.23±7.62 and 52.47±8.52 mg kg-1, respectively. The sediments were polluted with respect to Cd and Pb to some extent. Total metals concentrations were correlated with sediment physical and chemical properties. EC, organic matter, CEC and clay were sediment parameters that showed significant positive correlations with total heavy metals concentrations indicating that heavy metals concentrations are controlled by sediments grain size. Sediments of Abshineh River were polluted with respect to cadmium to some extent. Sediments in upper reach was not polluted by metals, while in lower reach the concentration of metals increased and reached to pollution especially regarding cadmium and lead. The majority of metals had strong bonding with sediment components indicating their low bioavailability to organisms.
Conclusion: There is a highly significant correlation exist between bioavailable and total Zn and Cu which can be due to the common sources of introduction to the river. Percent of DTPA-extractable Cd was much higher than the others, which suggests that possible mobility of this metal from exchangeable phase. The bioavailability of the five studied metals from Abshineh probably decline in the following order: Cd>Cu>Pb> Ni=Zn. Cadmium and Pb had higher bioavailability in comparison with other metals suggesting that these metals were distributed in non-labile fractions of sediments.

 
Keyword(s): HEAVY METALS, BIO-AVIALBILITY, RIVER, SEDIMENT
 
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