Paper Information

Journal:   ELECTRONIC JOURNAL OF SOIL MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION   2016 , Volume 5 , Number 4; Page(s) 115 To 132.
 
Paper: 

EVALUATION OF EFFECTS OF AZOTOBACTER, AZOSPIRILLUM AND PSEDOMUNAS INOCULATION AND SPRAYING OF NITROGEN ON FERTILIZER USE EFFICIENCY AND GROWTH OF TRITICALE

 
 
Author(s):  SEYED SHARIFI R.*, LOTFOLLAH F., KAMARI H.
 
* DEPT. OF AGRONOMY AND PLANT BREEDING, UNIVERSITY OF MOHAGHEGH ARDABILI
 
Abstract: 

Background and objectives: Among various nutritional requirements for production, nitrogen is known to be an essential element for plant growth and development. Nitrogen deficiency limits cell division, chloroplast development, enzyme activity and reduces dry matter yields. Although nitrogen is the key element in increasing of productivity, but large rates of fertilizer N loss to the environment could cause a serious environmental problem such as groundwater contamination. Chemical fertilizers combined with organic manures result in increase of soil organic matter, improvement of soil properties and increase of crop yield. Determination of the effects of Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Psedomunas inoculation and spraying time of nitrogen on fertilizer use efficiency and growth of triticale is very important to maximize yield and economic profitability of triticale production in a particular environment. Moreover, it seems that there is little investigation about the combined effects of nitrogen fertilization and bio fertilizer on growth of Triticale. Considering the above facts, the present study was performed to know the effects of Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Psedomunas inoculation and spraying time of nitrogen on fertilizer use efficiency and growth of Triticale.
Materials and methods: A factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications in research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili in 2012. Treatments were: seed inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in four levels containing (without inoculation as control, seed inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum strain 5, Azospirillum lipoferum strain OF, Psedomunas putida strain 9 and spraying nitrogen fertilizer in four levels (without spraying as control, spraying in boot stage, ear emergence, grain filling period) from urea.
Results: Results indicated that spraying of nitrogen fertilizer × seed inoculation with PGPR had significant effects on growth indices, yield and yield components at 0.01 probability level. The highest values of total dry matter, crop growth rate and relative growth rate and leaf area index were observed in inoculated plants with Azotobacter chroococcum × nitrogen spraying in boot stage and the lowest were recorded in non-seed inoculation and without spraying. Maximum of yield and yield components, fertilizer use efficiency were obtained in seed inculation with Azotobacter chroococcum × nitrogen spraying in boot stage.
Conclusion: It seems that in order to increase these traits, is suggested nitrogen spraying in boot stage × seed inoculation with Azotobacter.

 
Keyword(s): BIOFERTILIZER, GROWTH INDICES, SEED INOCULATION, YIELD
 
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